MISSION to Mars

This page was last updated on October 17, 2017

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Introduction to MISSION to Mars


View of the Sun from Mars


M A R S !!


Inside the Planet M A R S !!


Inside Planet Mars (Infographic) By Karl Tate, SPACE.com Infographics Artist | November 15, 2010 02:22pm ET - See more at: The planet Mars is the fourth planet from the sun and named after the Roman God of War
and is also called the 'Red Planet.' Mars has a thin atmosphere and surface features similar to Earth.
- See more at:

MORE RESOURCES: The 7 Biggest mysteries of Mars

Mars Orbit Configuration -- Lockheed Martin Concept


The SLS ROCKET


Uploaded on Jun 8, 2011 Media Fusion has a long history of creating animation to demonstrate mission capabilities for NASA.
This animation features the Ares I and Ares V as a part of the Constellation program.
That program has now evolved into the Space Launch System (SLS).
Media Fusion continues to support NASA and has created many animations visualizing the future of SLS.
Category Film & Animation License Standard YouTube License

Karl Tate, SPACE.com Infographics Artist

Karl's association with SPACE.com goes back to 2000, when he was hired to produce interactive Flash graphics.
Starting in 2010, Karl has been TechMediaNetwork's infographics specialist across all editorial properties.
Before joining SPACE.com, Karl spent 11 years at the New York headquarters of The Associated Press, creating
news graphics for use around the world in newspapers and on the web.
He has a degree in graphic design from Louisiana State University.
To find out what his latest project is, you can follow Karl on Google+.

- See more at:Karl Tate, SPACE.com Infographics Artist on

Space Radiation Threat to Astronauts Explained (Infographic)

NASA at Mars: 20 years of 24/7 exploration

Published on Jun 22, 2017 No one under 20 has experienced a day without NASA at Mars. The Pathfinder mission, carrying the Sojourner rover, landed on Mars on July 4, 1997. In the 20 years since Pathfinder's touchdown, eight other NASA landers and orbiters have arrived successfully, and not a day has passed without the United States having at least one active robot on Mars or in orbit around Mars. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube Licen

NASA's Journey to Mars

NASA's Mission to Mars Planning Guide

NASA's Journey to Mars Home page

Nasa's Journey to Mars Home page

NASA is developing the capabilities needed to send humans to an asteroid by 2025 and Mars in the 2030s �
goals outlined in the bipartisan NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and in the U.S. National Space Policy, also issued in 2010.
Mars is a rich destination for scientific discovery and robotic and human exploration as we expand our presence into the solar system.
Its formation and evolution are comparable to Earth, helping us learn more about our own planet�s history and future.
Mars had conditions suitable for life in its past.
Follow our progress at NASA EXPLORATION and Mars Mission" NASA's Orion Flight Test and the Journey to Mars Image Credit: NASA

NASA's Journey to Mars Mission Guide

NASA'S Mission To Mars Planning Guide


Beam Me Up, Mars! Uwingu Will Send 90,000 Radio Messages There Today(11-28-2014)

Early Spring Dust Storms at the North Pole of Mars. Early spring typically brings dust storms to northern polar Mars.
As the north polar cap begins to thaw, the temperature difference between the cold frost region and recently thawed surface results
in swirling winds. The choppy dust clouds of several dust storms are visible in this mosaic of images taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft
in 2002. The white polar cap is frozen carbon dioxide. (NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems)
Maybe you can�t climb on a rocketship to Mars, at least yet, but at the least you can get your desire for exploration out through other means.
Today(11-28-2014), take comfort that humanity is sending 90,000 messages in the Red Planet�s direction. That�s right, the non-profit
Uwingu plans to transmit these missives today around 3 p.m. EST (8 p.m. UTC).

Pyramid Found On Mars?

Published on Jun 20, 2015 A remarkable artefact has been found on the red planet by the Mars Curiosity Rover. Due to the size of the object about the scale of a small car i would theorize that the artefact is either the capstone of a much larger pyramid possibly buried deep beneath the surface or perhaps a marker stone. Raw Image: Visit My Blog:


July, 2003 Opportunity Rover Launches to Mars

On July 7, 2003, NASA launched its second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, aboard a Delta II launch vehicle. Opportunity and its twin rover Spirit landed on Mars in 2004 to begin missions planned to last three months. Both rovers far exceeded those plans. Spirit worked for six years

The Curiosity Rover

The series of nine images making up this animation were taken by the rear Hazard-Avoidance Camera (rear Hazcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover as the rover drove over a dune spanning "Dingo Gap" on Mars. The Hazcam, mounted low on the vehicle's chassis, provides a wide-angle view. Curiosity made this 23-foot (7 meter) drive during the 535th Martian day, or sol, of its work on Mars (Feb. 6, 2014). At the start of the drive, the rover's right-front wheel was already at the crest of the 3-foot-tall (1-meter-tall) dune, with the rover still pointed uphill. By the last three images in the series, the rover was headed downhill. › See animation The light-toned dome on the right side of the horizon is part of Mount Sharp. This drive was westward. The rover's long-term destination on the lower slope of Mount Sharp is still farther west and south from the rover's current location. Dingo Gap provided an entryway into a valley to the west. The valley appealed to the rover team as a driving route because its terrain includes fewer sharp rocks than alternative routes considered. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech Last Updated: July 3, 2015 Editor: Tony Greicius

Should a Mars Colony Be Independent?

The Martian Colony Question

A Martian ANALEMMA

The Opportunity rover captured this analemma showing the Sun’s movements over one Martian year.
Images taken every third sol (Martian day) between July, 16, 2006 and June 2, 2008.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ASU/TAMU

A Martian Gravity Map

new map of Mars' gravity made with three NASA spacecraft is the most detailed to date,
providing a revealing glimpse into the hidden interior of the Red Planet.
The map was derived using Doppler and range tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network
from three NASA spacecraft in orbit around Mars: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Possible Methane Sources and Sinks This illustration portrays possible ways that methane might be added to Mars' atmosphere (sources)
and removed from the atmosphere (sinks). NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has detected fluctuations in methane concentration
in the atmosphere, implying both types of activity occur in the modern environment of Mars.

Methane Measurements by NASA's Curiosity in Mars' Gale Crater This graphic shows tenfold spiking in the abundance of methane in the Martian atmosphere surrounding
NASA's Curiosity Mars rover, as detected by a series of measurements made with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer
(TLS) instrument in the rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) laboratory suite.

Radition Threat to Astronouts

5 Steps to Colonising Mars in The Next 10 Years Thoughty2

Published on May 9, 2016 Start your free trial site today at - Use offer code "THOUGHTY" for 10% off! Colonising mars is the next big step for mankind. But is life on Mars actually possible? What will we need to do and how long will it take? SUBSCRIBE - New Vids Mon & Thurs: : Ask a Question on Thoughty2.com Support me on Patreon: Thoughty2 Facebook: Thoughty2 Twitter: Thoughty2 Merchandise: With Special Thanks To: Misha A-Wilson, Katrina Brogan, Michelle & Aaron Finn, Jeff Lee, Kent Zacherl, Steve Bradshaw, Lisa Pimlett, Matthew Russell, Saverius Caption author (Dutch) RojtirLaaknivII Category Education License Standard YouTube License

HOW BAD IS THE RADIATION ON MARS?

Image taken by the Viking 1 orbiter in June 1976, showing Mars thin atmosphere and dusty, red surface. Credits: NASA/Viking 1

Artist’s rendering of a solar storm hitting Mars and stripping ions from the planet’s upper atmosphere. Credits: NASA/GSFC

How Can We Live On Mars?

Published on Apr 24, 2014 Why live on Earth when you can live on Mars? Well you can't. Mars is a completely hostile environment to human life. And yet, if we want to expand into the Solar System, we'll need to live on this planet. Here's how we'll do it. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Artist impression of a Mars settlement with cutaway view. Credit: NASA Ames Research Center

How Do We Terraform Mars? by Fraser Cain

Published on Jul 21, 2014 If we really want to live on Mars, we're going to need to do a complete renovation. We'll need to thicken the atmosphere, warm the planet, and get the liquid water flowing. What'll it take? Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

New visualization of Mars

Mars as Never Seen Before

Streamed live on Jun 5, 2017 Get closer to Mars! Using pioneering technology, the Museum uses NASA’s current Mars data to showcase never-before-seen details of the red planet. Join Carter Emmart for a new look at the Martian landscape, beyond the reach of rovers. The content is rendered using the open-source Astrovisualization framework OpenSpace , The Git Hub Location The Hayden Planetarium Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


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Habitation on Mars


Landing on Mars


Living on mars


Why it's Hard Living on mars


Cost of Living on mars


Mars city design design your martian city


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The Movie "The Martian"


Website of the The martian Movie

Matt Damon stars as NASA astronaut Mark Watney in ‘The Martian.’ Credit: 20th Century Fox

The Martian Mission guide pdf

Orbital diagram of the Movie the Martian

'The Martian' Star Matt Damon Discusses NASA's Journey to Mars

3D: The Path of "The Martian" of Andy Weir: Video from Images of Mars Express spacecraft

Published on Oct 5, 2015 To see the original version here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfz6r.... Following the path of 'The Martian' –
video generated using images acquired by the Mars Express orbiter. "In your face Neil Armstrong!" –
as he says these words, NASA astronaut Mark Watney senses for the first time that he might have only a very small chance
of getting out of his predicament alive. Watney is 'The Martian' in the film of the same name (release date in Germany: 8 October)
who, in a not too distant future, finds himself stranded on the Red Planet. The topographical and geographical maps play an essential
role in allowing him to navigate the months-long trek to the Ares 4 spacecraft located in Schiaparelli Crater.
Scientists from the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) –
who specialise in producing highly accurate topographical maps of Mars – reconstructed Watney's route using stereo image data
acquired by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board ESA's Mars Express spacecraft.
They then compiled this data into a 3D film that shows the spectacular landscape that the protagonist would see 'in the future'.

THE MARTIAN - Movie clips

Scene from ‘The Martian’ starring Matt Damon as NASA astronaut Mark Watney contemplating
magnificent panoramic vista while stranded alone on Mars. Credits: 20th Century Fox See real Martian maps and flyover video from DLR and NSA below Story/imagery updated

Real topographic map of the area of Mars covered in ‘The Martian.’ Follow the path of Mark Watney’s
fictional endeavors from the Ares 3 landing site at Acidalia Planitia to NASA’s real Mars Pathfinder lander
at the mouths of Ares Vallis and Tiu Valles and back, and finally to the Ares 4 landing site at Schiaparelli
Crater. Credit: DLR/ESA/NASA

Mark Watney arrives at the NASA’s 1997 Pathfinder lander to gather communications gear in a
scene from “The Martian.” People and technology from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory aid fictional
astronaut Mark Watney during his epic survival story in “The Martian.”
Credits: 20th Century Fox

This May 2015 image from the HiRISE camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows
a location on Mars associated with the best-selling novel and Hollywood movie, “The Martian.”
It is in a region called Acidalia Planitia, at the landing site for the science-fiction tale’s Ares 3 mission.
For the story’s central character, Acidalia Planitia is within driving distance from where NASA’s Mars Pathfinder,
with its Sojourner rover, landed in 1997.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona


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The Mars One Mission Proposal


MARS ONE MISSION INFOGRAPHIC

MARS INFOGRAPHIC

MARS ONE ARTIST CONCEPTIONs

Artist�s conception of Mars One human settlement. Credit: Mars One/Brian Versteeg
How possible is it to land humans on Mars? And can Mars One, the organization proposing to start
with sending four astronauts one way, capable of doing it by 2025 as it promises?
A new study says that the Mars One concept could fail on several points:
oxygen levels could skyrocket unsafely. Using the local resources to generate habitability is unproven.
The technology is expensive. But the founder of Mars One says the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
student study is based on the wrong assumptions.

MARS ONE ARTIST CONCEPTIONs

MARS ONE MERGES WITH MOBILE PAYMENT COMPANY IN ODD RESTRUCTURING

Artist’s concept of a Martian astronaut standing outside the Mars One habitat. Credit: Bryan Versteeg/Mars One

Published on Jun 6, 2012 How does Mars One plan to establish a human settlement on Mars? Click on the red button [=] in the bottom to change the subtitles. MARS ONE PAGE Follow Mars One Newsletter: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Google+: LinkedIn: Pinterest: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


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Making the Trip to Mars Cheaper and Easier:
The Case for Ballistic Capture
by MATT WILLIAMS on DECEMBER 26, 2014

A new proposal for sending craft to Mars could save money and offer more flexible launch windows. Credit: NASA

Explore MARS.org: Attempting to make Missions to Mars More Affordable


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ELON MUSK

Elon Musk Wants to Bring the Internet to Mars by NANCY ATKINSON on JANUARY 19, 2015

Elon Musk. Credit: SpaceX. Truly a man for all seasons, Elon Musk�s next big thing is to build an internet for when people start arriving on Mars.

SpaceX Dragon V2 | Flight Animation

Published on May 29, 2014 Meet SpaceX's Dragon V2 spacecraft, the next generation spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to Earth orbit and beyond. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

SPACEX ANNOUNCES PLAN TO LAUNCH PRIVATE DRAGON MISSION TO MARS IN 2018

Landing a flying, fire-breathing Red Dragon on Mars is huge

NASA SpaceX Work Together on Mars Mission

SPACEX MAIDEN FALCON HEAVY LAUNCH MAY CARRY SATELLITE IN NOVEMBER, 2016 #REDDRAGON

The falcon Heavy typical mission

Mission Breifing: NASA'S mission and Spacex's Mission Briefing

Manned Mars Mission - SpaceX Mission to Colonize Mars by 2028 Mission Briefing

Published on May 5, 2016 Manned Mission to Mars by SpaceX. Mars Colonization, how soon and what'll take to Colonize Mars.
NASA has its own plans, ESA too, however it is SpaceX and Elon Musk that is edging ahead with visionary
ideas and hopes to reach Mars by 2028 with permanent base established there.
To that end, SpaceX is keen on getting the right technologies in place to achieve Manned mission to Mars by 2028.
Mars Colonial Transporter and Falcon Heavy will play a vital role in putting essential stuff in to the orbit and on their way to Mars.
SpaceX is developing Mars Colonial Transporter and Elon Musk plans to unveil concept and news around whole Mars mission in September, so stay tuned. Tune used in this video is: Wedding Invitation, Music by Jason Farham, #REDDRAGON

ELON MUSK's Mission to MARS Misson Log

An artist's illustration of the Falcon Heavy rocket being rolled on to the launch pad. Image: SpaceX #REDDRAGON

SpaceX Red Dragon spacecraft launches to Mars on SpaceX Falcon Heavy as soon as 2018 in this artists comcept.
Credit: SpaceX #REDDRAGON

This artist’s illustration of the Falcon Heavy shows the rocket in flight prior to releasing its two side boosters. Image: SpaceX #REDDRAGON

ARTIST CONCEPT: The Falcon Heavy Launches through "MAXQ" on it's way to mars. Credit: SpaceX #REDDRAGON

Artists concept for sending SpaceX Red Dragon spacecraft to Mars as early as 2018.
Credit: SpaceX #REDDRAGON

Artist conception of Spacex' Re Dragon capsule de-accelerating to a landing on mars #REDDRAGON

Artist Conception: Putting such a large spacecraft on Mars is unprecedented for a nation or company. #REDDRAGON

Artists concept for sending SpaceX Red Dragon spacecraft to land propulsively on Mars as early as 2018.
Credit: SpaceX #REDDRAGON

Artists concept for sending SpaceX Red Dragon spacecraft to land propulsively on Mars as early as 2018.
Credit: SpaceX #REDDRAGON

Manned Mars Mission - SpaceX Mission to Colonize Mars by 2028
MISSION BRIEF

Published on May 5, 2016 Manned Mission to Mars by SpaceX. Mars Colonization, how soon and what'll take to Colonize Mars. NASA has its own plans, ESA too, however it is SpaceX and Elon Musk that is edging ahead with visionary ideas
and hopes to reach Mars by 2028 with permanent base established there.
To that end, SpaceX is keen on getting the right technologies in place to achieve Manned mission to Mars by 2028.
Mars Colonial Transporter and Falcon Heavy will play a vital role in putting essential stuff in to the orbit
and on their way to Mars. SpaceX is developing Mars Colonial Transporter and Elon Musk plans to unveil concept and news
around whole Mars mission in September, so stay tuned. Tune used in this video is: Wedding Invitation, Music by Jason Farham, #REDDRAGON

SpaceX appears to have pulled the plug on its Red Dragon plans

After Your Crewed mission to Mars You need somewhere to live!

Dubai announces a Mars Simulation!

Here is Dubai's Mars simulation in the miserably hot desert of Dubai

ELON MUSK REVEALS FURTHER PLANS TO COLONIZE MARS AND MAKE AEROSPACE TRANSIT A REALITY

The founder of SpaceX said a planned interplanetary transport system would be downsized so it could carry out a range of tasks that would then pay for future Mars missions. Credit: AFP/Peter Parks

Artist’s impression of the ITS (BFR) conducting a service run to the ISS. Credit: SpaceX

Artists’ impression of Moon Base Alpha, SpaceX’s envisioned lunar outpost, which would be supplied with the BFR. Credit: SpaceX

Animation showing the proposed growth of a colony on Mars (click to see animation). Credit: SpaceX

This week (early oct 2017) at the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in Adelaide, Australia, SpaceX CEO and Lead Designer Elon Musk will provide an update to his 2016 presentation regarding the long-term technical challenges that need to be solved to support the creation of a permanent, self-sustaining human presence on Mars.. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


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Terraforming Mars

Student Team Wants to Terraform Mars Using Cyanobacteria
by MATT WILLIAMS on DECEMBER 26, 2014

Artist concept of a �Living� Mars. Credit: Kevin Gill
While scientists believe that at one time, billions of years ago, Mars had an atmosphere similar to Earth�s
and was covered with flowing water, the reality today is quite different. In fact, the surface of Mars is so hostile that a vacation in
Antarctica would seem pleasant by comparison.

NEW STUDY COULD HELP LOCATE SUBSURFACE DEPOSITS OF WATER ICE ON MARS

Mars Express' view of Meridiani Planum. Credits: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)

Artist’s impression of a global view of Mars, centered on the Meridiani Planum region. Credit: Air and Space Museum/Smithsonian Institution

Artist’s impression of the Mars Express rover, showing radar returns from its MARSIS instrument. Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL/KU/Smithsonian

A subsurface view of Miyamoto crater in Meridiani Planum from the MARSIS radar sounder. . Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL/KU/Smithsonian


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Landscapes on Mars


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Stunning View of Solar System�s Largest Volcano and Valles Marineris
Revealed by India�s Mars Orbiter Mission

Olympus Mons, Tharsis Bulge trio of volcanoes, and Valles Marineris from ISRO�s Mars Orbiter Mission.
Note the clouds and south polar ice cap. Credit: ISRO

3D flight over chaotic terrain on Mars


Published on Oct 20, 2014
Among the most interesting landforms on Mars are features referred to as �chaotic terrain�.
Dozens or even hundreds of isolated mountains up to 2000 m high are scattered in these extensive regions.
Seen from orbit, they form a bizarre, chaotic pattern. Such terrains are found over a large area to both the west and east of Valles Marineris,
the largest canyon in the Solar System. Hydraotes Chaos, showcased in this video, is a typical example of this type of landscape.
The data used to generate these images and the simulated flyover were acquired with the High Resolution Stereo Camera on ESA�s Mars Express orbiter.

Episode 2 Symbols of an Alien Sky: The Lightning Scarred Planet, Mars (Full Documentary)

In Episode 2 Symbols of an Alien Sky: The Lightning Scarred Planet, Mars,
David Talbott takes the viewer on an odyssey across the surface of Mars. Exploring feature after feature of the planet,
he finds that only electric arcs could produce the observed patterns. The high resolution images reveal massive channels and gouges,
great mounds, and crater chains, none finding an explanation in traditional geology but all matching the scars from electric discharge
experiments in the laboratory. As a scientific follow-up to Symbols of an Alien Sky, this documentary provides a definitive answer to the question:
was Mars carved from pole to pole by intense interplanetary discharge?

Opportunity Rover Team Honors Pioneering Lindbergh Flight at Mars Mountaintop Crater)

The science team leading NASA's long-lived Opportunity rover mission is honoring the pioneering solo nonstop
trans-Atlantic flight of aviator Charles Lindbergh by
assigning key features of the Mars mountain top crater
area the rover is now exploring with names related to the historic flight.
Opportunity is now studying an elongated crater called "Spirit of St. Louis” and an unparalleled rock spire within
the crater called “Lindbergh Mound

Morning clouds fill Coprates Chasma on Mars in this Nov. 25, 2015,
image from the THEMIS camera on NASA’s Mars Odyssey. No orbiter systematically observed Mars in morning sunlight before 2015.
The clouds appear blue because ice particles in them scatter blue light more strongly than other colors.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Arizona State University - See more at:

Science'Spiders' on Mars: Citizen Scientists Investigate Strange Martian Terrain
credit:space.com

Mars camera celebrates 15 years of discoveries at Red Planet Apr 7, 2016 - See more at:

Sand-laden jets shoot into the Martian polar sky in this artist’s view.
THEMIS images and data led scientists to discover these jets were the source of
mysterious dark makings that appeared every spring on the south polar cap of Mars.
Image Credit: Arizona State University/Ron Miller - See more at:

SPIDERS GROWING ON THE SURFACE OF MARS RIGHT BEFORE OUR EYES!

HiRISE images of the Martian landscape, showing outgassing and the formation of dark fans and “spiders”. Credit: NASA/JPL

NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been surveying strange "spider-like" surface features on Mars for years,
and now citizen scientists are helping the orbiter hone in on areas that require further investigation.
These prominent surface features are found near Mars' south pole, and are believed to be linked to seasonal changes.
The planet's polar ice caps thaw bottom-side first in the spring, causing carbon dioxide to build up and carve deep channels
in the terrain, according to a statement from NASA.

Images of dark spots (left) and fans (right) observed on top of the Martian south polar cap taken in southern spring. Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS

WOW, MARS SURE CAN BE PRETTY

This colorful image of Martian bedrock, punctuated in the center by dunes, is courtesy of the HiRise camera aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Image: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

HiRise captured this image of unusual textures on the floor of the Gale Crater, the same crater where the Curiosity rover is working. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

This color-enhanced image of a fresh Martian crater was captured by the HiRise camera. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

These odd ridges are still a mystery. Were they formed by glaciers? Oceans? Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

What is this? A vast area of Martian rice paddies? Lizard skin? Nope, just an area of intersecting sand dunes. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

This double impact crater was caused by a meteorite that split into two before hitting Mars. Notice how the eroding force of the wind has shaped each crater the same, smoothing one edge and creating dunes in the same place. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

These gullies are on the dunes of Russell Crater on Mars. This image was taken during winter, and the frozen carbon dioxide on the shaded slopes. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

This image of the Russell Crater, an area of study for HiRise, shows the area covered in dunes, with some frost visible in the lower left. The larger, darker markings are dust devil tracks. Image: By NASA/JPL/University of Arizona – HiRISE, Public Domain,

These delicate dune features formed inside the Valles Mariners, the massive canyon system on Mars. Image: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Layered deposits in Uzboi Vallis on Mars, as seen by the HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

EVER WONDERED WHAT A FINAL APPROACH TO MARS MIGHT FEEL LIKE?

A FICTIVE FLIGHT ABOVE REAL MARS from Jan Fröjdman on Vimeo.

The anaglyph images of Mars taken by the HiRISE camera holds information about the topography of Mars surface. There are hundreds of high-resolution images of this type. This gives the opportunity to create different studies in 3D. In this film I have chosen some locations and processed the images into panning video clips. There is a feeling that you are flying above Mars looking down watching interesting locations on the planet. And there are really great places on Mars! I would love to see images taken by a landscape photographer on Mars, especially from the polar regions. But I'm afraid I won't see that kind of images during my lifetime.

It has really been time-consuming making these panning clips. In my 3D-process I have manually hand-picked reference points on the anaglyph image pairs. For this film I have chosen more than 33.000 reference points! It took me 3 months of calendar time working with the project every now and then.

The colors in this film are false because the anaglyph images are based on grayscale images. I have therefore color graded the clips. But I have tried to be moderate doing this. The light regions in the clips are yellowish and the dark regions bluish. The clips from the polar regions (the last clips in the film) have a white-blue tone.There are a lot of opinions and studies of what the natural colors on Mars might be. But the dark regions of dust often seems to have a bluish tone. Please study this issue on e.g sites by NASA.

This film is not scientific. As a space enthusiast I have just tried to visualize the planet my way.
The video begins with a nearby approach to Mars moon Phobos.
Some of the anaglyphs used can be seen on my blog, please visit:

Please watch the film in 2K if possible for greater details.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Referenses and locations on Mars: PSP_007769, ESP_018859, ESP_012435, ESP_034285, ESP_011648, ESP_045091, ESP_020878, ESP_045634, ESP_037704, ESP_046725, ESP_037705, ESP_018548, ESP_016641, ESP_027236, ESP_011729, ESP_045571, ESP_047503, ESP_023464, ESP_013049

More to see and to contact:


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Curiosity's 1000 sol anniversary!!

The Martian Curiosity Looks Back on 1000 Sols of Exploration on the Red Planet
by KEN KREMER on JUNE 1, 2015

Looking back 1000 Sols on the Red Planet NASA’s Martian Curiosity rover looks backs to 1000 Sols of science and exploration on the surface of the Red Planet.
Robot wheel tracks lead back through valley dunes. Gale Crater rim seen in the distant hazy background. Sol 997 (May 28, 2015)

Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ Ken Kremer/

Opportunity’s view (annotated) on the day the NASA rover exceeded the distance of a marathon
on the surface of Mars on March 24, 2015, Sol 3968 with features named in honor of Charles Lindbergh’s
historic solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. Rover stands at Spirit of Saint Louis Crater
near mountaintop at Marathon Valley overlook and Martian cliffs at Endeavour crater holding deposits
of water altered clay minerals. This navcam camera photo mosaic was assembled from images taken on Sol 3968
(March 24, 2015) and colorized."Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo

Opportunity at Spirit of Saint Louis crater scanning into Marathon Valley and Endeavour crater
from current location on Mars in April 2015 in this photo mosaic. The crater, featuring an odd mound
of rocks now named Lingbergh Mound, is the gateway to Marathon Valley and exposures of water altered clay minerals.
This navcam camera photo mosaic was assembled from images taken on Sol 3987 (April 12, 2015) and colorized.
"Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo

Curiosity Investigates Petrified Martian Sand Dunes, Contemplates Next Drill Campaign
by KEN KREMER on SEPTEMBER 12, 2015

Large-scale crossbedding in the sandstone of this ridge on a lower slope of Mars’ Mount Sharp
is typical of windblown sand dunes that have petrified. NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover used its Mastcam
to capture this vista on Aug. 27, 2015, Sol 1087. Similarly textured sandstone is common in the U.S. Southwest.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Curiosity looks toward fabulous canyons and buttes at the base of Mount Sharp
from the Stimson sand dunes on Mars on Sol 1100, Sept. 10 2015 in this photo mosaic stitched from
Mastcam color camera raw images.
"Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo

Curiosity Snaps ‘Big Sky’ Drill Site Selfie at Martian Mountain Foothill
by KEN KREMER on OCTOBER 14, 2015

This self-portrait of NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover shows the vehicle at the “Big Sky” site,
where its drill collected the mission’s fifth taste of Mount Sharp, at lower left corner.
The scene combines images taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on Sol 1126 (Oct. 6, 2015).
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
See below navcam drilling photo mosaic at Big Sky

NASA Curiosity rover reaches out with robotic arm to drill into cross-bedded sandstone rock at ‘Big Sky’
target on Sol 1119, Sept. 29, 2015, in this photo mosaic stitched from navcam camera raw images and colorized.
Big Sky is located in the Stimson unit on the lower slopes of Mount Sharp inside Gale Crater.
"Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo

TThis Martian “postcard” comes after Mars Curiosity drilled its eighth hole on the Red Planet. This composite image
looking toward the higher regions of Mount Sharp was taken on September 9, 2015, by NASA’s Curiosity rover.
In the foreground — about 2 miles (3 kilometers) from the rover — is a long ridge teeming with hematite, an iron oxide.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

WATCH THE CURIOSITY ROVER ROLL ACROSS MARS’ SURFACE

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TThe Mars rover Curiosity on the road to Hematite Ridge. Credit: NASA/JPl-Caltech/MSSS/Seán Doran.

TThe Mars rover Curiosity on the road to Hematite Ridge. Credit: NASA/JPl-Caltech/MSSS/Seán Doran. Please note that Curiosity doesn’t actually move this fast, as in the video it is going about 8 kph, whereas in reality, the rover travels at a top speed of about .16 kph. But still, this is just fantastic! “As much as I enjoy looking at the images from Mars, it is difficult to get a real sense of the scene as there is no obvious Earthly scale cue,” Seán told Universe Today via email. “No trees, plants, buildings or humans. So, I decided to put Curiosity into her own photographs to help us relate to them.”


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Curiosity at the NAMIB DUNE FIELD AND MAP OF MOVEMENTS THRU SOL 1197

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Curiosity at NAMIB Dune Sol 1197

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Curiosity explores Red Planet paradise at Namib Dune during Christmas 2015 - backdropped by Mount Sharp.
Curiosity took first ever self-portrait with Mastcam color camera after arriving at the lee face of Namib Dune.
This photo mosaic shows a portion of the full self portrait and is stitched from Mastcam color camera raw images taken on Sol 1197, Dec. 19, 2015.
Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Ken Kremer/kenkremer.com/Marco Di Lorenzo

Curiosity drives around the dark Namib sand dunes for first in-place study of an active sand dune anywhere beyond Earth.
This colorized photo mosaic is stitched from Mastcam camera raw images taken on Sol 1192, Dec. 13, 2015.
Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo/Ken Kremer/kenkremer.com

Curiosity observes dark dunes up close after arriving in the vicinity of Namib Dune at base of Mount Sharp
to study sand movements over time. This photo mosaic is stitched from Mastcam camera raw images taken on Sol 1190, Dec. 11, 2015.
Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo/Ken Kremer/kenkremer.com

Curiosity approaches the dark Bagnold Dunes backdropped by towering Mount Sharp, for first in-place study of an active sand dune
anywhere other than Earth. This colorized photo mosaic is stitched from navcam camera raw images taken on Sol 1169, Nov. 19, 2015.
Credit: NASA/JPL/ Marco Di Lorenzo/Ken Kremer/kenkremer.com

The rippled surface of the first Martian sand dune ever studied up close fills this Nov. 27, 2015, view of “High Dune”
from the Mast Camera on NASA’s Curiosity rover. This site is part of the “Bagnold Dunes” field of active dark dunes along the northwestern flank
of Mount Sharp. The raw images for this mosaic were taken on Nov. 27, 2015, Sol 1176.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Curiosity approaches the dark Bagnold Dunes for first in-place study of an active sand dune anywhere other than Earth.
This photo mosaic is stitched from navcam camera raw images taken on Sol 1168, Nov. 18, 2015.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Ken Kremer/

Curiosity’s Traverse Map Through Sol 1196. This map shows the route driven by NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity through Sol 1196, December, 18, 2015.
Numbering of the dots along the line indicate the sol number of each drive. North is up. The scale bar is 1 kilometer (~0.62 mile).
From Sol 1194 to Sol 1196, Curiosity had driven a straight line distance of about 97.41 feet (29.69 meters).
The base image from the map is from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Camera (HiRISE) in NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

CURIOSITY ROVER’S PROXIMITY TO POSSIBLE WATER RAISES PLANETARY PROTECTION CONCERNS Article Updated: 9 Sep , 2016

View from the Curiosity rover at the foot of Aeolis Mons, before the rover starts to climb the mountain. Credit: NASA


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OPPORTUNITY DISCOVERS DUST DEVIL, EXPLORES STEEPEST SLOPES ON MARS

NASA’s Opportunity rover discovers a beautiful Martian dust devil moving across the floor of Endeavour crater
as wheel tracks show robots path today exploring the steepest ever slopes of the 13 year long mission,
in search of water altered minerals at Knudsen Ridge inside Marathon Valley on 1 April 2016.
This navcam camera photo mosaic was assembled from raw images taken on Sol 4332 (1 April 2016) and colorized.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ Ken Kremer/

A shadow and tracks of NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity appear in this March 22, 2016,
image, which has been rotated 13.5 degrees to adjust for the tilt of the rover.
The hillside descends to the left into “Marathon Valley.” The floor of Endeavour Crater is seen beneath the underside of a solar panel.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA’s Opportunity rover images current worksite at Knudsen Ridge on Sol 4228
where the robot is grinding into rock targets inside Marathon Valley during 12th Anniversary
of touchdown on Mars in Jan. 2016.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ Ken Kremer/

NASA’s Opportunity rover peers outwards across to the vast expense of Endeavour Crater
from current location descending along steep walled Marathon Valley in early November 2015.
Marathon Valley holds significant deposits of water altered clay minerals holding clues to the planets watery past.
Shadow of Pancam Mast assembly and robots deck visible at right. This navcam camera photo mosaic was assembled
from images taken on Sol 4181 (Oct. 29, 2015) and colorized.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ Ken Kremer/

12 Year Traverse Map for NASA’s Opportunity rover from 2004 to 2016.
This map shows the entire path the rover has driven during almost 12 years and more than a
marathon runners distance on Mars for over 4332 Sols, or Martian days, since landing inside Eagle Crater on Jan 24, 2004 –
to current location at the western rim of Endeavour Crater and descending into Marathon Valley. Rover surpassed Marathon
distance on Sol 3968 and marked 11th Martian anniversary on Sol 3911. Opportunity discovered clay minerals at Esperance –
indicative of a habitable zone – and is currently searching for more at Marathon Valley.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ Ken Kremer/

This March 21, 2016, image from the navigation camera on NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity
shows streaks of dust or sand on the vehicle’s rear solar panel after a series of drives during
which the rover was pointed steeply uphill. The tilt and jostling of the drives affected material on the rover deck.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

A shadow and tracks of NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity appear in this March 22, 2016,
colorized hazcam camera image, which has been rotated 13.5 degrees to adjust for the tilt of the rover.
The hillside descends to the left into “Marathon Valley.” The floor of Endeavour Crater is seen beneath the underside of a solar panel.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ Ken Kremer/

Composite hazcam camera image (left) shows the robotic arm in motion as NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity
places the tool turret on the target named “Private John Potts” on Sol 4234 to brush away obscuring dust.
Rover is actively working on the southern side of “Marathon Valley” which slices through western rim of Endeavour Crater.
On Sol 4259 (Jan. 16, 2016), Opportunity completed grinds with the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) to exposure rock interior
for elemental analysis, as seen in mosaic (right) of four up close images taken by Microscopic Imager (MI).
Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ Ken Kremer/

OPPORTUNITY CELEBRATES CHRISTMAS/NEW YEAR ON MARS MARCHING TO ANCIENT WATER CARVED GULLY

13 Year Traverse Map for NASA’s Opportunity rover from 2004 to 2016. This map shows the entire 43 kilometer (27 mi) path the rover has driven on the Red Planet during nearly 13 years and more than a marathon runners distance for some 4600 Sols, or Martian days, since landing inside Eagle Crater on Jan 24, 2004 – to current location at the western rim of Endeavour Crater. After descending down Marathon Valley and after studying Spirit Mound, the rover is now ascending back uphill on the way to a Martian water carved gully. Rover surpassed Marathon distance on Sol 3968 after reaching 11th Martian anniversary on Sol 3911. Opportunity discovered clay minerals at Esperance – indicative of a habitable zone – and searched for more at Marathon Valley Credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ASU/Marco Di Lorenzo/Ken Kremer/kenkremer.com.


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Spacecrafts to MARS

NASA's Mars MAVEN Spacecraft Ready for Sept. 21 Orbit Insertion


This artist concept depicts the process of orbital insertion of NASA�s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft.
Image Credit: NASA/GSFC
NASA�s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft is nearing its scheduled Sept. 21 insertion into Martian orbit
after completing a 10-month interplanetary journey of 442 million miles.
Flight Controllers at Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Littleton, Colorado, will be responsible for the health and safety
of the spacecraft throughout the process. The spacecraft�s mission timeline will place the spacecraft in orbit at approximately 9:50 p.m. EDT.

An Animation of NASA's Mars Spacecraft Ready for Sept. 21 Orbit Insertion


On September 21st, NASA's next spacecraft - MAVEN - arrives at Mars, beginning its mission to study the atmosphere of Mars.
In order to get into orbit around Mars, MAVEN has to change its velocity by more than 4,300 kph.
One of the cool first missions for MAVEN was totally unexpected. It's going to image Comet Siding Springs,
which will pass only 130,000 km from Mars. In fact, Mars is going to pass right through the coma of the comet.

This animation depicts MAVEN orbiting Mars. Image credit: NASA


This animation depicts MAVEN orbiting Mars. Image credit: NASA
After a 10-month journey, confirmation of successful orbit insertion was received from MAVEN data observed at the
Lockheed Martin operations center in Littleton, Colorado, as well as from tracking data monitored at NASA�s
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) navigation facility in Pasadena, California. The telemetry and tracking data were received
by NASA�s Deep Space Network antenna station in Canberra, Australia.

Science Casts: First Light for MAVEN

A new ScienceCast video presents MAVEN's first observations of the Martian atmosphere.(see below)

Published on Oct 8, 2014 Visit for more. NASA's MAVEN spacecraft has reached Mars and it is beaming back "First Light" images
of the Red Planet's upper atmosphere. The data could help researchers understand what transformed Mars from a hospitable planet billions of years ago into a desiccated wasteland today. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


India's MOM Mission


India�s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is closing in on the Red Planet and the
Mars Orbit Insertion engine firing when it arrives on September 24, 2014
after its 10 month interplanetary journey. Credit ISRO

India's MOM MIssion Diagram


Trans Mars Injection (TMI), carried out on Dec 01, 2013 at 00:49 hrs (IST) moved the spacecraft
into the Mars Transfer Trajectory (MTT). With TMI the Earth orbiting phase of the spacecraft ended
and the spacecraft is now on a course to encounter Mars after a journey of about 10 months around the Sun.
Credit: ISRO

India's MOM MIssion ARRIVAL Diagram

ISRO�s Mars Orbiter Mission � The plan of action for Mars Orbit Insertion on September 24. Credit ISRO

MOM counts as India�s first interplanetary voyager and the nation�s first manmade object to orbit the 4th rock from our Sun � if all goes well.
The LAM was last fired over nine months ago on December 01, 2013 to inject MOM into a ten month long interplanetary Trans Mars Trajectory.

MOM Eyes the Limb of Mars after History Creating Arrival

ISRO�s Mars Orbiter Mission captures the limb of Mars with the Mars Color Camera from an altitude of 8449 km
soon after achieving orbit on Sept. 23/24, 2014 . Credit: ISRO
India�s maiden interplanetary voyager, the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) has transmitted a breathtaking new image eyeing
the limb of Mars and its atmosphere against the blackness of space.

Nuclear Explosion Style Mushroom Cloud Photographed On Mars
Posted by Sean Adl-Tabatabai in Sci/Environment
- See more at: http://yournewswire.com/nuclear-explosion-style-mushroom-cloud-photographed-on-mars/#sthash.IWOtJJsl.dpuf


Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) have photographed what looks like a giant mushroom cloud on Mars. Techmalak.com reports: Taken by the onboard Mars Colour Camera (MCC), these images have been quickly uploaded to the ISRO�s website, with a great amount of detail. Advertisement The large mushroom cloud was sighted in the Valles Marineris Canyon, which is located along the equator of the planet, - See more at:

Magnificent Mars: 10 Years of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter


Published on Mar 9, 2016 NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has clocked more than a decade of service at the Red Planet
and has yielded scientific discoveries and magnificent views of a distant world.
These images taken by MRO's HiRISE camera are not in true color because they include infrared information
in order to be optimized for geological science.
For more info about MRO go to: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


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Moons of Mars


The Martian Moon PHOBOS


Phobos Transit of the Sun From Mars(SOL 719)



Curiosity watched on sol 713 as lumpy Phobos passed across the face of the Sun. There are 84 images in this animation,
which runs faster than natural speed. A couple of sunspots are faintly visible. The animation is composed of raw JPEG images,
so contains artifacts, particularly at the high-contrast areas at the edges of the Sun and Phobos.
NASA / JPL / MSSS / TAMU / Emily Lakdawalla
Copyright holder: Emily Lakdawalla

Phobos Transit of the Sun From Mars(SOL 369)


Curiosity watched Phobos pass across the Sun on sol 369, shooting one photo per second.
This animation runs about 10 times natural speed. NASA / JPL / MSSS / TAMU / Emily Lakdawalla

Mars’ Moon Phobos Undergoing ‘Structural Failure’
by Nancy Atkinson on November 10, 2015


New modeling indicates that the grooves on Mars’ moon Phobos could be produced by tidal forces –
the mutual gravitational pull of the planet and the moon. Initially, scientists had thought the grooves were
created by the massive impact that made Stickney crater (lower right).
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

Phobos’ Stickney Crater. Credit: NASA.

The Martian Moon DEIMOS


Image of the Martian Moon of Deimos, as imaged by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Credit: HiRISE/MRO/LPL (U. Arizona)/NASA

The Martian Moon of Deimos, as pictured by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Credit: HiRISE/MRO/LPL (U. Arizona)/NASA

NEW JAPANESE MISSION WILL BE GOING TO THE MOONS OF MARS


Artist's impression of the Mars Moons Exploration (MMX) spacecraft. Credit: JAXA

Phobos and Deimos, photographed here by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, are tiny, irregularly-shaped moons that are probably strays from the main asteroid belt. Credit: NASA

Artist’s impression of the MMX spacecraft in launch configuration. Credit: JAXA

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Artist’s concept of the MMX spacecraft in orbital configuration, with its scientific instruments indicated. Credit: JAXA


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Martian Geology�


Opportunity Mars Rover Treks Past 41 Kilometers Towards �Marathon Valley�


Artist�s conception of a Mars Exploration Rover, which included Opportunity and Spirit. Credit: NASA
The Opportunity Mars rover is busy on its wheels as it moves towards �Marathon Valley�,
a location that could include clay minerals � a sign of past water in the region. After successfully passing 41 kilometers (25.47 miles)
in total driving a few weeks ago, the rover is closing out its 11th year on Mars with guided and unguided drives towards that destination.


Curiosity Rover Data Indicates Gale Crater Mountain Used to be a Lake�


This evenly layered rock photographed by the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA�s Curiosity Mars Rover on Aug. 7, 2014,
shows a pattern typical of a lake-floor sedimentary deposit not far from where flowing water entered a lake. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.
What is now a mountain, was once a lake. That�s the conclusion of the Curiosity Mars rover science team
after studying data and imagery from the rover, which indicates that the mountain the rover is now climbing in Gale Crater �
Aeolis Mons, or Mount Sharp � was built by sediments deposited in a large lake bed over tens of millions of years.

Artist rendition of how the �lake� at Gale Crater on Mars may have looked millions of years ago. Credit and copyright: Kevin Gill.
What is now a mountain, was once a lake. That�s the conclusion of the Curiosity Mars rover science team
after studying data and imagery from the rover, which indicates that the mountain the rover is now climbing in Gale Crater
� Aeolis Mons, or Mount Sharp � was built by sediments deposited in a large lake bed over tens of millions of years.

Curiosity Rover Confirms Ancient Lake Filled Gale Crater, Boosting Chance of Life
by KEN KREMER on OCTOBER 11, 2015


A view from the “Kimberley” formation on Mars taken by NASA’s Curiosity rover. The strata in the foreground
dip towards the base of Mount Sharp, indicating flow of water toward a basin that existed before the larger bulk of the mountain formed.
This image was taken by the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on Curiosity on Sol 580 of the mission and has been “white balanced”
to adjust for the lighting on Mars make the sky appear light blue.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Curiosity rover panorama of Mount Sharp captured on June 6, 2014 (Sol 651) during traverse inside Gale Crater.
Note rover wheel tracks at left. She will eventually ascend the mountain at the ‘Murray Buttes’ at right later this year.
Assembled from Mastcam color camera raw images and stitched by Marco Di Lorenzo and Ken Kremer.
"Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo

An image taken at the “Hidden Valley” site, en-route to Mount Sharp, by NASA’s Curiosity rover. A variety of mudstone strata in the area
indicate a lakebed deposit, with river- and stream-related deposits nearby. This image was taken by the Mast Camera (Mastcam)
on Curiosity on Sol 703.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Curiosity’s Panoramic view of Mount Remarkable at ‘The Kimberley Waypoint’ where rover conducted 3rd drilling campaign
inside Gale Crater on Mars. The navcam raw images were taken on Sol 603, April 17, 2014, stitched and colorized.
"Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo. Featured on APOD – Astronomy Picture of the Day on May 7, 2014

NASA’s Curiosity rover looks back to ramp with potential 4th drill site target at ‘Bonanza King’ rock outcrop in ‘Hidden Valley’
in this photo mosaic view captured on Aug. 6, 2014, Sol 711. Inset shows results of brushing on Aug. 17, Sol 722,
that revealed gray patch beneath red dust. Note the rover’s partial selfie, valley walls, deep wheel tracks in the sand dunes and distant rim
of Gale crater beyond the ramp. Navcam camera raw images stitched and colorized.
"Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo.


This Mountain on Mars Is Leaking
by JASON MAJOR on APRIL 11, 2015!


The web site of The Mars Reconnaissance Web Site"

PDF Report A geomorphic analysis of Hale crater, Mars: The effects of impact into ice-rich crust A.P. Jones a,? , A.S. McEwen b , L.L. Tornabene b,1 , V.R. Baker c , H.J. Melosh d , D.C. Berman e

Seasonal flows spotted by HiRISE on northwestern slopes in Hale Crater. (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona)
As the midsummer Sun beats down on the southern mountains of Mars, bringing daytime temperatures soaring up to a balmy 25�C (77�F),
some of their slopes become darkened with long, rusty stains that may be the result of water seeping out from just below the surface.

Lakes, Fans, Deltas and Streams: Geomorphic Constraints
on the Hydrologic History of Gale Crater, Mars


It has been proposed that in Gale Crater, where the Curiosity rover landed in August 2012, lakes developed to various depths
after the large central mound (informally referred to as Mt. Sharp) had evolved to a form close to its current topography.

Mars has vast reserves of water in the form of ice. Most of this water ice is located in the polar regions

New estimates of water ice on Mars suggest there may be large reservoirs of underground ice at non-polar latitudes.
Credit: Feldman et al., 2011

What Makes Mars Sunsets Different from Earth’s?

Sunset photographed from Gale Crater by the Mars Curiosity rover on April 15, 2015.
The four images shown in sequence here were taken over a span of 6 minutes, 51 seconds
using the left eye of the rover’s Mastcam. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Curiosity Discovers Mars Rock Like None Before, Sets Drill CampaignBR> by KEN KREMER on JULY 31, 2015

Curiosity extends robotic arm and conducts test drill at “Buckskin” rock target at bright toned
“Lion” outcrop on the lower region of Mount Sharp on Mars, seen at right. Gale Crater eroded rim seen
in the distant background at left, in this composite multisol mosaic of navcam raw images taken to Sol 1059, July 30, 2015.
Navcam camera raw images stitched and colorized."Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzoo

Curiosity Drills Deep into First High Silica Martian Rock on Third Touchdown Anniversary
by KEN KREMER on AUGUST 4, 2015

Curiosity extends robotic arm and conducts sample drilling at “Buckskin”
rock target at bright toned “Lion” outcrop at the base of Mount Sharp on Mars,
seen at right, during August 2015. Gale Crater eroded rim seen in the distant background at left,
in this composite multisol mosaic of navcam raw images taken to Sol 1059, July 30, 2015.
Navcam camera raw images stitched and colorized.
Inset: MAHLI color camera up close image of full depth drill hole at “Buckskin” rock target on Sol 1060.
"Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Marco Di Lorenzo

Curiosity Rover Panorama By Adam Synergy
Space news August 26, 2015

NASA's MSL Curiosity Rover used its Mastcam instrument on Sol 1081 of its mission, creating these images of Mount Sharp and Gale Crater.
Assembled into a 360 panorama by yours truly. Credit NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.

THE HIDDEN GLACIERS OF MARS Article Updated: 15 Oct , 2016 by Matt Williams

Colour-coded topographic view of the Colles Nili region, showing the relative heights and depths of terrain. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin

Artist’s impression of the Mars Express spacecraft in orbit. Credit: ESA/Medialab


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AURORAS ON MARS!!!!

Surprise � Mars Has Auroras Too! by JASON MAJOR on MARCH 18, 2015


Artist�s conception of MAVEN observing the �Christmas Lights Aurora� on Mars. (University of Colorado)
Just a day after skywatchers at mid- to upper-latitudes around the world were treated to a particularly energetic display
of auroras on the night of March 17, 2015 as a result of an intense geomagnetic storm, researchers announced findings from NASA�s
MAVEN mission of auroral action observed on Mars � although in energetic ultraviolet wavelengths rather than visible light.

Does the Red Planet Have Green Auroras?
by Bob King on May 13, 2015


Using its Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS), MAVEN recorded numerous auroras in December 2014.
The map shows that the aurora was widespread in the northern hemisphere, not tied to any geographic location.
The aurora was seen in all observations during a 5-day period.
Credit: University of Colorado


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Water on Mars??

NASA Discovers Salty Liquid Water Flows Intermittently on Mars Today, Bolstering Chance for Life
by KEN KREMER on SEPTEMBER 28, 2015


These dark, narrow, 100 meter-long streaks called recurring slope lineae flowing downhill on Mars are inferred to have been
formed by contemporary flowing water. Recently, planetary scientists detected hydrated salts on these slopes at Hale crater,
corroborating their original hypothesis that the streaks are indeed formed by liquid water. The blue color seen upslope of the dark streaks
are thought not to be related to their formation, but instead are from the presence of the mineral pyroxene.
The image is produced by draping an orthorectified (Infrared-Red-Blue/Green(IRB))
false color image (ESP_030570_1440) on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the same site produced by High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment
(University of Arizona). Vertical exaggeration is 1.5. Credits: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

The Garni Crater


Dark narrow streaks called recurring slope lineae emanating out of the walls of Garni crater on Mars.
The dark streaks here are up to few hundred meters in length. They are hypothesized to be formed by flow of briny liquid water on Mars.
The image is produced by draping an orthorectified (RED) image (ESP_031059_1685) on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
of the same site produced by High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (University of Arizona).
Vertical exaggeration is 1.5. Credits: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

The dark, narrow streaks flowing downhill on Mars at sites such as this portion of Horowitz Crater are inferred
to be formed by seasonal flow of water on modern-day Mars. The streaks are roughly the length of a football field.
These dark features on the slopes are called “recurring slope lineae” or RSL.
The imaging and topographical information in this processed view come from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment
(HiRISE) camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona

NASA FINDS EVIDENCE OF LIQUID WATER ON MARS


Streaks that appear and vanish on steep slopes are evidence of liquid water
on Mars NASA SAYS.The streaks of highly salted water lengthen in warm months and fade in cooler months.
Credit NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

Boiling Water and Jumping Sands on Mars Recurrent Slope Lineae and their secrets Read more:


A REGION ON MARS WITH RECENT WATER IS ABOUT TO GET MAJOR ATTENTION


Striations exposed on the surface between Martian sand dunes (one pictured at top) in Lucaya Crater indicate fluctuating levels of salty groundwater. At “a” we see possible cross beds which are tilted layers of sand within larger layers deposited by wind or water. At b, dark and light strata are similar to that exposed in the dune at top and resemble the striations seen in the Namib Desert on Earth. The photo was taken by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in infrared, red and blue light. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

A valley lined with sand dunes crosses the southern floor of the 21-mile-wide Lucaya Crater, located at latitude 11° south and longitude 52° east on Mars. Striations found between the dunes may have been created by recent water flows. The box shows the area pictured in the close up above. The 3.7-mile-long valley measures between 2,000 and 2,600 feet wide. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech with additions by the author(Bob King)

Compare these cemented arctuate striations between dunes near Walvis Bay, Namibia with those in Lucaya Crater’s valley in the earlier image. White arrows highlight particularly prominent examples. Photos in (b) and (c) were taken from the ground. The excavated pit in (c) shows that the dipping sediment layers below the surface match the protruding layers on the surface. Alternating light and dark layers have different salt composition and grain size. Credit: Google Earth (left) and Dr Mary Bourke, Trinity College Dublin

ANCIENT HYDROTHERMAL VENTS FOUND ON MARS, COULD HAVE BEEN A CRADLE FOR LIFE

MOLA topographic data, colorized to show the maximum (1,100?m) and minimum (700?m) level of an ancient sea. Credit: NASA/Joseph R. Michalski (et al.)/Nature Communications

The Eridania basin of southern Mars is believed to have held a sea about 3.7 billion years ago, with seafloor deposits likely resulting from underwater hydrothermal activity. Credit: NASA

Illustrates showing the origin of some deposits in the Eridania basin of southern Mars resulting from seafloor hydrothermal activity more than 3 billion years ago. Credit: NASA

A scale model compares the volume of water contained in lakes and seas on the Earth and Mars to the estimated volume of water contained in an ancient Eridania sea. Credit: JJoseph R. Michalski (et al.)/Nature Communications


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NASA’s MAVEN Orbiter Discovers Solar Wind
Stripped Away Mars Atmosphere Causing Radical Transformation by KEN KREMER on NOVEMBER 5, 2015

Artist’s rendering of a solar storm hitting Mars and stripping ions from the planet’s upper atmosphere.
Credits: NASA/GSFC

Billions of years ago, Mars was a very different world. Liquid water flowed in long rivers
that emptied into lakes and shallow seas. A thick atmosphere blanketed the planet and kept it warm.
Credit: NASA

Video caption: Created using data from NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission,
this visualization shows how the solar wind strips ions from the Mars’ upper atmosphere into space.
Credits: NASA-GSFC/CU Boulder LASP/University of Iowa

NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft celebrated one Earth year
in orbit around Mars on Sept. 21, 2015. MAVEN was launched to Mars on Nov. 18, 2013 from
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida and successfully entered Mars’ orbit on Sept. 21, 2014.
Credit: NASA

MAVEN is NASA’s next Mars orbiter and is due to blastoff on Nov. 18, 2013 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
It will study the evolution of the Red Planet’s atmosphere and climate.
Universe Today visited MAVEN inside the clean room at the Kennedy Space Center. With solar panels unfurled,
this is exactly how MAVEN looks when flying through space and circling Mars.
Credit: Ken Kremer

NASA’s MAVEN Mars orbiter, chief scientist Prof. Bruce Jakosky of CU-Boulder and Ken Kremer of Universe Today
inside the clean room at the Kennedy Space Center on Sept. 27, 2013.
MAVEN launched to Mars on Nov. 18, 2013 from Florida. Credit: Ken Kremer


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The Future??

A possible nasa mission to mars?


Image of a future mission to mars?

From the Planetary Society :HUMANS ORBITING MARS


A critical step for mankind

Just Passing By: A mars slingshot around Mars


Modified Spacex Capsule

NASA Mars Landing Craft Idea Is More Than Just Child�s Play


Artist�s conception of the futuristic Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) entering the atmosphere of Mars. Credit: NASA
Assuming we can get humans all the way to Mars, how the heck do we land them on the Red Planet?
The challenge is the atmosphere of Mars is very thin, making parachutes tricky. Heavier payloads require unique ideas to get them on the surface

Robots Exploring Alien Volcanoes? NASA Lab Hopes To Get There One Day
by ELIZABETH HOWELL on JANUARY 8, 2015


Olympus Mons from orbit. Credit: NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems
We�ve seen volcanoes or geysers erupting on the moons of Io and Enceladus.
Volcanic remnants remain on Mars and the Moon. But it�s tough for rovers to get inside these challenging environments.BR> So NASA�s Jet Propulsion Laboratory is trying out a new robot here on Earth to one day, they hope, get inside volcanoes elsewhere
in the Solar System.

Helicopter Drones on Mars
by PAUL PATTON on MARCH 17, 2015


A small drone helicopter currently being developed by engineers at NASA�s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
could serve as a reconnaissance scout for future Mars rovers, greatly enhancing their effectiveness. Credit NASA JPL
NASA�s Jet Propulsion Laboratory recently announced that it is developing a small drone helicopter to scout the way for
future Mars rovers. Why would Mars rovers need such a robotic guide? The answer is that driving on Mars is really hard.

Will We Ever Colonize Mars?
by MATT WILLIAMS on MAY 31, 2015


Artist illustration of a Mars Colony. Image credit: NASA

Building Proposals for Mars Colonization Image Credit: Found on futuristicnews.com

How to build a Mars colony that lasts – forever By Victoria Jaggard in Washington DC

A sustainable outpost on the Red Planet may be humanity's only chance of survival, but challenges include growing food and overcoming insomnia CREDIT: NEW SCIENTIST

What It Could Be Like to Live on Mars

I’d always wanted to visit Mars. Instead I got Hawaii. There, about 8,200 feet above sea level on Mauna Loa, sits a geodesically domed… Plans Courtesy of Blue Planet Research Bryan Christie Design

Colonizing Mars

Uploaded on Nov 10, 2009 Could global warming, a problem here on Earth, be the solution to making Mars a habitable planet? Expedition Week: Mars: Making the New Earth :National Geographic Channel

Exploring Mars

Mars-manned-mission vehicle (NASA Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0) Feb 2009.
Credit: NASA

As of 2014, SpaceX has begun development of the large Raptor rocket engine for the Mars Colonial Transporter

A few “fan-based” Mars Colonization Transport (MCT) design concepts, which Musk hopes to use
to ferry colonists to Mars 100 people at a time. Credit: Reddit

NASA's Curiosity Rover Snaps Pyramid On Mars,
Is This Proof Of An Early Civilization?(June 2015)


In the latest news on space exploration, NASA’s Mars rover found what looks like the
image of a Great Pyramid found back on Earth. The images are part of a series of anomalies
found on the Red Planet. This May 7 “pyramid” image has stargazers believing that
intelligent life exists or once thrived on Mars.

Engineering a Martian Revolution


June 25, 2015 As part of the British Interplanetary Society's annual conference on extraterrestrial liberty,
a diverse group of thinkers are contemplating how denizens of a future Martian colony could counteract
the emergence of a dictatorial leader. The gathering, which in year's past looked at how to construct a government in space,
aims to determine regulations and safeguards that would prevent the emergence of any would-be interstellar despot,
since violent opposition to such a scenario could prove to be calamitous for everyone.

The first airplane on Mars will be pretty far from this fantasy


This render shows what the Prandtl-m might look like on Mars. NASA

MCT trip to Mars


SpaceX Interplanetary Transport System


This Week in Space: Help Wanted on Bone-Dry Mars Jason Snell November 6, 2015


NASA's 2020 Mission to Mars


RARE ELEMENT COULD POINT THE WAY TO PAST LIFE ON MARS


Artist's impression of the Mars 2020 Rover. Credit: NASA.

The microphone for the upcoming Mars mission will be attached to the SuperCam,
 seen here in this illustration zapping a rock with its laser.
 Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s impression of the Mars 2020 with its sky crane landing system deployed. 
Credit: NASA/JPL

Mars Base Camp design unveiled by Lockheed Martin, humans to orbit Mars in 2028 - TomoNews


LOCKHEED MARTIN UNVEILS DETAILS OF THEIR PROPOSED BASE CAMP FOR MARS


Artist's impression of the Mars Base Camp in orbit around Mars
 Credit: Lockheed Martin

Artist’s impression of Lockheed Martin’s proposed Mars Lander. Credit: Lockheed Martin

At no other time in history have we had the technology, the know-how, and the public enthusiasm to get humans to Mars. 
Orion is NASA’s spaceship that will take humans into deep space, but it needs to be a part of a larger system to go to Mars.
 Lockheed Martin’s concept is called Mars Base Camp and it’s our idea of how to send humanity’s first crewed mission to Mars
 in about a decade. The Mars Base Camp orbiting outpost could give scientists/astronauts the ability to operate rovers and drones
 on the surface in real time – helping us better understand the Red Planet and answer fundamental questions: Where did we come from? 
 Where are we going? Are we alone?
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MARS BASE PROPOSAL FROM THE Planetary Society

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES HAS A PLAN TO COLONIZE MARS WITH 600,000 PEOPLE IN 100 YEARS


Artist's concept for a possible colony on Mars, which the United Arab Emirates indicated it is committed to building by 2117.
 Credit: Ville Ericsson

Emirates Mars Mission
Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre MBRSC


Published on May 6, 2015

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The "Mars 2117" project will develop an Emirati and international team of scientists to push the human exploration of Mars in years to come.
HH Sheikh Mohammed

"Mars 2117" is a seed we are sowing today to reap the fruit of new generations led by a passion for science and advancing human knowledge.
HH Sheikh Mohammed


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MARS COLONY WILL HAVE TO WAIT, SAYS NASA SCIENTISTS 30 Mar , 2016 by Matt Williams

Concept for NASA Design Reference Mission Architecture 5.0 (2009). Credit: NASA


NASA proposed mission to Mars calls for the creation of an “exploration zone”,
which will serve as the center of its crewed activities on the Red Planet. Credit: NASA


Artist’s concept of a Mars habitat and pressurized rover, by John Frassanito and Associates. Credit: NASA


Artist’s concept of a Martian astronaut standing outside the Mars One habitat. Credit: Bryan Versteeg/Mars One


Artist’s concept for a possible colony on Mars, by Ville Ericsson. Credit: ville-ericsson.se


We’ve been dreaming about a Mars colony for a long time, as the lovely retro drawing shows.
Will SpaceX finally give us one? Image: NASA


GET THAT GEOLOGIST A FLIGHT SUIT!


Future missions to Mars and other locations in the Solar System may depend heavily on the skills of planetary geologists.
Credit: NASA Ames Research Center


WHEN WILL WE SEND ASTRONAUTS TO MARS?


NASA astronauts exploring Mars on future missions starting perhaps in the 2030’s
will require protection from long term exposure to the cancer causing space radiation environment.
Credit: NASA.


In between launching V-2s in New Mexico and developing rockets at Redstone Arsenal,
Von Braun had time to write Mars Projekt (1952).
Credit: Mars Project, Von Braun


McMurdo Station, the only enduring human presence in Antarctica, pictured at night.
Credit: m.earthtripper.com


First Landing Site / EZ - Opening Plenary


Published on Oct 30, 2015 Opening Plenary Session. Tuesday afternoon, October 27, 2015 Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


ROCKY EXERCISE DEVICE WILL HELP KEEP DEEP SPACE A FIT PLACE


NASA has unveiled a new exercise device that will be used by Orion crews to stay healthy on their mission to Mars. Credit: NASA


Cutaway of the Orion crew module, showing the ROCKY exercise device in blue,
below the side hatch that astronauts will use to get in and out of the spacecraft. Credit: NASA


The ROCKY device in action. Credit: NASA


The ROCKY is likely to become a mainstay for future long-term missions using the Orion space capsule. Credit: NASA


NASA’s Journey to Mars Ramps Up with InSight, Key Tests Pave Path to 2016 Lander Launch
by KEN KREMER on MAY 29, 2015


NASA’s InSight Mars lander spacecraft in a Lockheed Martin clean room near Denver(May 2015). As part of a series of deployment tests,
the spacecraft was commanded to deploy its solar arrays in the clean room to test and verify the exact process
that it will use on the surface of Mars.
CREDITS: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lockheed Martin

Back shell of NASA’s InSight spacecraft is being lowered onto the mission’s lander,
which is folded into its stowed configuration. The back shell and a heat shield form the aeroshell,
which will protect the lander as the spacecraft plunges into the upper atmosphere of Mars.
Launch now rescheduled to May 2018 to fix French-built seismometer.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lockheed Martin

Mars Cube One: New Deep-Space CubeSats Will Travel to Mars Along With InSight Lander
By Paul Scott Anderson


Artist’s conception of the MarCO CubeSats flying past Mars as the InSight lander descends to the surface. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech The next NASA mission to Mars, the InSight lander, will include some additional experimental technology:
the first deep-space CubeSats. Two small CubeSats will fly past the planet as the lander is descending through the atmosphere;
this will be the first time CubeSats have been used in an interplanetary mission.

Mars' Insight Mission


This artist’s concept depicts the InSight lander on Mars after the lander’s robotic arm has deployed
a seismometer and a heat probe directly onto the ground. InSight is the first mission dedicated to investigating
the deep interior of Mars. The findings will advance understanding of how all rocky planets, including Earth,
formed and evolved. NASA approved a new launch date in May 2018.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

InSight: Digging Deep with NASA's Next Mars Lander


Boeing Eyes Moon-Orbiting Space Station as Waypoint to Mars


NASA MIGHT BUILD AN ICE HOUSE ON MARS

Artist concept of the Mars Ice Home. Credit: NASA.


A cutaway of the interior of the Mars Ice Home concept. Credit: NASA Langley/Clouds AO/SEArch.


Team members of the Ice Home Feasibility Study discuss past and present technology development efforts in inflatable structures at NASA’s Langley Research Center. Credits: Courtesy of Kevin Kempton/NASA.


Another cutaway of the interior design of the Mars Ice Home concept. Credit: NASA Langley/ Clouds AO/SEArch.


Imagining Life on Mars


Credit:NASA In a roundabout way, yes. But first we must heat that atmosphere, since the surface of Mars is about –58°F. "We know how to warm planets; we're doing it right now," says Robert Zubrin, the president of the nonprofit Mars Society, a group devoted to Martian exploration. To make Mars more Earthlike, or "terraform" it, we just need to increase the greenhouse effect by adding fluorocarbons to the atmosphere, absorbing and trapping the sun's rays. Tetrafluoromethane, or CF4, is a simple refrigerant that could work without destroying the ozone, as other fluorocarbons do.



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WEATHER ON MARS!!!!

The Mystery of Plumes on Mars


SPACE WEATHER CAUSING MARTIAN ATMOSPHERICS


Published on Oct 30, 2015 Hubble Space Telescope view of a plume high in the martian atmosphere seen in May 1997. Credit: NASA/ESA


A curious plume-like feature was observed on Mars on May 17, 1997 by the Hubble Space Telescope.
It is similar to the features detected by amateur astronomers in 2012, although appeared in a different location.
Credit: JPL/NASA/STScI


Mystery plume in Mars’ southern hemisphere photographed and animated by amateur astronomer Wayne Jaeschke on March 20, 2012.
The feature lasted for about 10 days.
Credit: Wayne Jaeschke


Mars has magnetized rocks in its crust that create localized, patchy magnetic fields (left).
In the illustration at right, we see how those fields extend into space above the rocks. At their tops, auroras can form.
Credit: NASA


The top image shows the location of the mysterious plume on Mars, identified within the yellow circle
(top image, south is up), along with different views of the changing plume morphology on March 21, 2012.
Copyright: W. Jaeschke and D. Parker


Earth-based observations of the plume on March 21, 2012 (top right) and of Mars Express solar wind
observations during March and April 2012 (bottom right). The left-hand graphics show Mars as seen by Mars Express.
Green represents the planet’s dayside and gray, the nightside. Magnetic areas of the crust are shown in blue and red.
The white box indicates the area in which the plume observations were made. Together, these graphics show that the amateur
observations were made during the martian daytime, along the dawn terminator, while the spacecraft observations were made along the dusk
terminator, approximately half a martian ‘day’ later.The black line on Mars is the ground track of the Mars Express orbiter.
The plot on the lower right shows Mars Express’s solar wind measurements. The peaks marked by the horizontal blue line indicate
the increase in the solar wind properties as a result of the impact of the coronal mass ejection.
Credit: Copyright: visual images: D. Parker (large Mars image and bottom inset) & W. Jaeschke (top inset).
All other graphics courtesy D. Andrews


Locations of 19 auroral detections (white circles) made by Mars Express during 113 nightside orbits between 2004 and 2014,
over locations already known to be associated with residual crustal magnetism. The data is superimposed on the magnetic field line
structure (from NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor) where red indicates closed magnetic field lines, grading through yellow, green and blue
to open field lines in purple. The auroral emissions are very short-lived, they are not seen to repeat in the same locations.
Credit: ESA / Copyright Based on data from J-C. Gérard et al (2015)


Mars rover spots clouds shaped by gravity(?) waves


While driving across the Naukluft plateau, a gnarly terrain riven with rock shards, last summer, Curiosity captured these early morning clouds. CREDIT: NASA/JPL York University


In 2013, during its first martian winter, Curiosity caught aphelion clouds as it looked straight up. CREDIT: NASA/JPL York University


Last summer,(EARTH 2016) Curiosity captured a potential gravity(?) wave cloud with its navigation camera. CREDIT: NASA/JPL York University



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