MARS INFO GRAPHIC HIGHLIGHTS THE PROBLEMS OF LIVING ON MARS
We begin the new Outward Bound series by discussing the Colonization of Mars, and survey all the colonizing and terraforming options from the early settlement days to the far future and a Green Mars. We will also look at alternatives to terraforming which might make more sense for Mars, like bioforming the people to the environment, rather than terraforming it to our environment. Visit our Website: Join the Facebook Group: Support the Channel on Patreon: Visit the sub-reddit: Listen or Download the audio of this episode from Soundcloud: Cover Art by Jakub Grygier: Graphics Team: Edward Nardella Jarred Eagley Justin Dixon Katie Byrne Kris Holland of Mafic Stufios: www.maficstudios.com Misho Yordanov Murat Mamkegh Pierre Demet Sergio Botero Stefan Blandin Script Editing: Andy Popescu Connor Hogan Edward Nardella Eustratius Graham Gregory Leal Jefferson Eagley Luca de Rosa Mark Warburton Michael Gusevsky Mitch Armstrong MolbOrg Naomi Kern Philip Baldock Sigmund Kopperud Steve Cardon Tiffany Penner Music: Markus Junnikkala, "Hail the Victorious Dead" Dan McLeod, "Vacuum" AJ Prasad, "Staring Through" Markus Junnikkala, "A Memory of Earth" Caption author (Korean) 신동화
The highest resolution panorama of Mars to date from the Curiosity rover has been released. -- Curiosity Rover: Facts and Information: Panorama in 360 video: Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
Team Zopherus of Rogers, Arkansas, is the first-place winner in NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, Phase 3: Level 1 competition. Credit: NASA
Team Zopherus from Rogers, Arkansas, is the first-place winner of Phase 3: Level 1 of NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge. The team’s design includes using a moving printer that deploys rovers to retrieve local materials. NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge aims to further the progression of sustainable shelters that will someday occupy the Moon, Mars or beyond by pushing citizen inventors to develop new technologies capable of additively manufacturing a habitat using indigenous resources with, or without, recyclable materials. The 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge is managed through a partnership with NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program and Bradley University. Bradley has partnered with sponsors Caterpillar, Bechtel and Brick & Mortar Ventures to administer the competition. NASA’s Centennial Challenges program is part of the agency’s Space Technology Mission Directorate, and is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. For information about the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, visit:
Phase 3: Level 1 of NASA's 3D Printed Habitat Challenge Marsha is a proposal for a habitat on the surface of Mars built autonomously using local and mission-generated materials. DESIGN TEAM Jeffrey Montes (lead) David I. Malott Sima Shahverdi David Riedel Michael Bentley Tony Jin SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS Structural engineering – Thornton Tomasetti (Dennis C.K. Poon, Chi Chung Tse, Saravanan Panchacharam, Hao Chen) Lighting design – Haniyeh Mirdamadi, Arup Concrete design – Dr. Victor Li, University of Michigan Polymer design – Techmer PM Mars geochemistry – Dr. Scott McLennan, Stony Brook University Planetary physics – Dr. Philip Metzger, University of Central Florida Systems and civil engineering – Dr. Paul van Susante, Michigan Tech ISRU/ robotics – Dr. Kris Zacny, Honeybee Robotics Basalt construction – PISCES Building energy performance - Duncan Phillips, RWDI script - Jeffrey Montes voice and music - Skyler Cocco photoreal renderings - Plomp (formerly Plompmozes) subtitle translation - Hassan Ashraf (Arabic), Amandine Cersosimo (French), Ambra Gadda (Italian), Lucas Licari and Jeffrey Montes (Spanish), Manavendra Mulye (Hindi) , Elias and Filippos Vokolos (Greek), Ary Wicaksana (Indonesian) Webpage twitter: ai_spacefactory
Team Kahn-Yates from Jackson, Mississippi, won third place in Phase 3: Level 1 of NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge. The team virtually designed a Mars habitat specifically suited to withstand dust storms and harsh climates on the red planet. NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge aims to further the progression of sustainable shelters that will someday occupy the Moon, Mars or beyond by pushing citizen inventors to develop new technologies capable of additively manufacturing a habitat using indigenous resources with, or without, recyclable materials. The 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge is managed through a partnership with NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program and Bradley University. Bradley has partnered with sponsors Caterpillar, Bechtel and Brick & Mortar Ventures to administer the competition. NASA’s Centennial Challenges program is part of the agency’s Space Technology Mission Directorate, and is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. For information about the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, visit: For information about the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, visit:
SEArch+/Apis Cor of New York won fourth place in Phase 3: Level 1 in NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge. This team focuses on regolith construction to provide radiation shielding and physical protection. NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge aims to further the progression of sustainable shelters that will someday occupy the Moon, Mars or beyond by pushing citizen inventors to develop new technologies capable of additively manufacturing a habitat using indigenous resources with, or without, recyclable materials. The 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge is managed through a partnership with NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program and Bradley University. Bradley has partnered with sponsors Caterpillar, Bechtel and Brick & Mortar Ventures to administer the competition. NASA’s Centennial Challenges program is part of the agency’s Space Technology Mission Directorate, and is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. For information about the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, visit: For information about the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, visit:
Team Northwestern University from Evanston, Illinois, won fifth place in Phase 3: Level 1 of NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge. The team’s design features a unique spherical shell and outer parabolic dome. NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge aims to further the progression of sustainable shelters that will someday occupy the Moon, Mars or beyond by pushing citizen inventors to develop new technologies capable of additively manufacturing a habitat using indigenous resources with, or without, recyclable materials. The 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge is managed through a partnership with NASA’s Centennial Challenges Program and Bradley University. Bradley has partnered with sponsors Caterpillar, Bechtel and Brick & Mortar Ventures to administer the competition. NASA’s Centennial Challenges program is part of the agency’s Space Technology Mission Directorate, and is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. For information about the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, visit: For information about the 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge, visit:
When it comes time to send astronauts to Mars, those who make the journey will need to be ready for a number of challenges. In addition to enduring about six-months in space both ways, the first astronauts to explore Mars will also need to be prepared to spend months living on the surface. This will consist of long periods spent in a pressurized habitat and regular forays to the surface wearing pressure suits.
Aerial image of the Hi-SEAS habitat, acquired on April 20th, 2016. Credit: NASA/Hi-SEAS
HI-SEAS is a martian simulation on the slopes of the Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawaii. Credits: HI-SEAS
The Marius Hills Skylight, as observed by the Japanese SELENE/Kaguya research team. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University
Two members of Mission V conducting a geological study using mock space suits. Credit: NASA/Hi-SEAS
Mars from pole to pole as imaged by the Mars Express orbiter. Image Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO A new image from the ESA’s Mars Express Orbiter shows exactly how different regions in Mars are from one another. From the cloudy northern polar region all the way to the Helles Planitia down in the south, Mars is a puzzle of different terrain types. At the heart of it all is what’s known as the The Martian dichotomy.(from wikipedia)
A topographic mercator projection map of Mars from MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data. Blue is low elevation, red is high elevation. Mars’ northern hemisphere is about 2 km lower than the southern hemisphere. Image Credit: By NASA / JPL / USGS – NASA CATALOG Public Domain,
Part of the Cydonia Mensae region on Mars, in the transition region between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the smooth northern lowlands. This image is from the High Resolution Stereo Camera on the ESA’s Mars Express orbiter. Image Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
A topographic slice of Mars with labels. Image Credit: NASA/MGS/MOLA Science Team, FU Berlin
This image shows a slice of the Red Planet from the northern polar cap downwards, and highlights cratered, pockmarked swathes of the Terra Sabaea and Arabia Terra regions. Image Credit: NASA/Viking, FU Berlin
The first two dust devil images are from a region on Mars called Acidalia Planitia, a region on Mars known for spawning dust devils.
A topographical map of Mars. Acidalia Planitia is at top centre, a uniform blue area. Image Credit: By United States Geological Survey Public Domain,
On recent summer afternoons on Mars, navigation cameras aboard NASA's Curiosity Mars rover observed several whirlwinds carrying Martian dust across Gale Crater. Dust devils result from sunshine warming the ground, prompting convective rising of air. All the dust devils were seen in a southward direction from the rover. Timing is accelerated and contrast has been modified to make frame-to-frame changes easier to see. For more information, read the full articl
MRO’s HiRISE camera captured this image of the so-called serpentine dust devil on Mars in 2012. Image Credit: By NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona – file, Public Domain,
A dust devil inside a Martian crater, as imaged by the Mars Global Surveyor. The dark spot is the dust devil itself, the streak is the trail left by the devil, and the long parallel streaks are sand dunes on the floor of the crater. Image Credit: MGS/ Public Domain,
The artful creations of the Martian wind. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
More dust-devils on the surface of Mars. The visual interplay between the dust devil tracks and the wind-driven dunes is beautiful. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.
A very large Martian dust devil. This one reached 20 km high. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona Share this:
Artist�s conception of Mars One human settlement. Credit: Mars One/Brian Versteeg
How possible is it to land humans on Mars? And can Mars One, the organization proposing to start
with sending four astronauts one way, capable of doing it by 2025 as it promises?
A new study says that the Mars One concept could fail on several points:
oxygen levels could skyrocket unsafely. Using the local resources to generate habitability is unproven.
The technology is expensive. But the founder of Mars One says the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
student study is based on the wrong assumptions.
Artist’s concept of a Martian astronaut standing outside the Mars One habitat. Credit: Bryan Versteeg/Mars One
Published on Jun 6, 2012 How does Mars One plan to establish a human settlement on Mars? Click on the red button [=] in the bottom to change the subtitles. MARS ONE PAGE Follow Mars One Newsletter: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Google+: LinkedIn: Pinterest: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License
In 2012, Dutch entrepreneur Bas Lansdorp launched the world’s first private and crowdsourced-effort to create a permanent outpost on Mars. Known as Mars One, this organization was the focus of a lot of press since it’s inception, some of it good, most of it bad. While there were many who called the organization’s plan a “suicide mission” or a “scam”, others invested their time, energy, and expertise to help make it happen.
This is an animated view of Mars One's future settlement on Mars.
Click on the red button [=] in the bottom to change the subtitles. Follow Mars One Newsletter: Facebook:Click on the red button [=] in the bottom to change the subtitles. Twitter: Instagram: Google+: :LinkedIn : Pinterest
In 2017, Elon Musk laid out his grand sweeping plans for the future of SpaceX, the company that would take humanity to Mars. Over decades, tens of thousands of Starship flights would carry a million human beings to the surface of the Red Planet, the minimum Musk expects it’ll take to create a self-sustaining civilization.
In 2017, Elon Musk laid out his grand sweeping plans for the future of SpaceX, the company that would take humanity to Mars. Over decades, tens of thousands of Starship flights would carry a million human beings to the surface of the Red Planet, the minimum Musk expects it’ll take to create a self-sustaining civilization. The number of details in an effort like this is mind-boggling. What about the reduced gravity, radiation exposure, and space madness? What about return flights? Replacement parts? Building materials? what's everybody to eat? Our Book is out! ITunes:Audio Podcast version: RSS: https://www.universetoday.com/audio Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / email@example.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”
We’ve always assumed that astronauts working on Mars would feed themselves by growing Earthly crops in simulated Earth conditions. But that requires a lot of energy, space, and materials. It may not be necessary. An artist’s illustration of a greenhouse on Mars. Image Credit: SAIC
The prototype greenhouse is being designed to provide astronauts with a continuous vegetarian diet. Image: University of Arizona.
EDEN ISS under construction in Antarctica. Credit: DLR
Growing trays inside EDEN ISS. Credit: DLR
NASA Astronauts Kjell Lindgren (center) and Scott Kelly (right) and Kimiya Yui (left) of Japan consume space grown food for the first time ever, from the Veggie plant growth system on the International Space Station in August 2015. Credit: NASA TV
Dwarf wheat growing in the Advanced Plant Habitat. Credit: NASA
Artist’s illustration of a SpaceX Starship landing on Mars. Credit: SpaceX
Boring Company’s drilling machine. Credit: Boring Company
It is similar to the features detected by amateur astronomers in 2012, although appeared in a different location.
The feature lasted for about 10 days.
Credit: Wayne Jaeschke
In the illustration at right, we see how those fields extend into space above the rocks. At their tops, auroras can form.
(top image, south is up), along with different views of the changing plume morphology on March 21, 2012.
Copyright: W. Jaeschke and D. Parker
observations during March and April 2012 (bottom right). The left-hand graphics show Mars as seen by Mars Express.
Green represents the planet’s dayside and gray, the nightside. Magnetic areas of the crust are shown in blue and red.
The white box indicates the area in which the plume observations were made. Together, these graphics show that the amateur
observations were made during the martian daytime, along the dawn terminator, while the spacecraft observations were made along the dusk
terminator, approximately half a martian ‘day’ later.The black line on Mars is the ground track of the Mars Express orbiter.
The plot on the lower right shows Mars Express’s solar wind measurements. The peaks marked by the horizontal blue line indicate
the increase in the solar wind properties as a result of the impact of the coronal mass ejection.
Credit: Copyright: visual images: D. Parker (large Mars image and bottom inset) & W. Jaeschke (top inset).
All other graphics courtesy D. Andrews
over locations already known to be associated with residual crustal magnetism. The data is superimposed on the magnetic field line
structure (from NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor) where red indicates closed magnetic field lines, grading through yellow, green and blue
to open field lines in purple. The auroral emissions are very short-lived, they are not seen to repeat in the same locations.
Credit: ESA / Copyright Based on data from J-C. Gérard et al (2015)
The annotated area in this animation of the Red Planet is where NASA spacecraft have found near-surface water ice that would be easy for astronauts to dig up. (Image: © NAS/JPL-Caltech)
This map shows where the underground water ice is located on Mars. Cool colors represent water ice that is closer to the surface than the areas in warm colors, and black zones indicate areas where a visiting spacecraft would sink into fine dust on the surface. The area outlined in white represents the ideal region to send astronauts for them to dig up water ice. (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU)
o say there are some myths circulating about Martian dust storms would be an understatement. Mars is known for its globe-encircling dust storms, the likes of which are seen nowhere else. Science fiction writers and Hollywood movies often make the dust storms out to be more dangerous than they really are. In “The Martian,” a powerful dust storm destroys equipment, strands Matt Damon on Mars, and forces him into a brutal struggle for survival.
A panorama image of the Opportunity rover, showing the solar panels. The rover’s science operations were shut down because of the growing global dust storm. Eventually, Opportunity ceased functioning. Credit: By NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell – Public Domain (NASA), Public Domain (Wikipedia)
The Aonia-Solis-Valles Marineris is a region on Mars spanning from Aonia Terr through Solis Planum to Valles Marineris. Image Credit: By Jim Secosky modified NASA image. Public Domain (WIKIPEDIA)
Rossby waves naturally occur in rotating fluids. Within the Earth's ocean and atmosphere, these planetary waves play a significant role in shaping weather. This animation from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center shows both long and short atmospheric waves as indicated by the jet stream. The colors represent the speed of the wind ranging from slowest (light blue colors) to fastest (dark red). Oceanic and atmospheric Rossby waves — also known as planetary waves — naturally occur largely due to the Earth's rotation. These waves affect the planet's weather and climate. Oceanic Rossby Waves Waves in the ocean come in many different shapes and sizes. Slow-moving oceanic Rossby waves are are fundamentally different from ocean surface waves. Unlike waves that break along the shore, Rossby waves are huge, undulating movements of the ocean that stretch horizontally across the planet for hundreds of kilometers in a westward direction. They are so large and massive that they can change Earth's climate conditions. Along with rising sea levels, King Tides, and the effects of El Niño, oceanic Rossby waves contribute to high tides and coastal flooding in some regions of the world. Rossby wave movement is complex. The horizontal wave speed of a Rossby (the amount of time it takes the wave to travel across an ocean basin) is dependent upon the latitude of the wave. In the Pacific, for instance, waves at lower latitudes (closer to the equator) may take months to a year to cross the ocean. Waves that form farther away from the equator (at mid-latitudes) of the Pacific may take closer to 10 to 20 years to make the journey. The vertical motion of Rossby waves is small along the ocean's surface and large along the deeper thermocline — the transition area between the ocean's warm upper layer and colder depths. This variation in vertical motion of the water's surface can be quite dramatic: the typical vertical movement of the water's surface is generally four inches or less, while the vertical movement of the thermocline for the same wave is approximately 1,000 times greater. In other words, for a four inch or less surface displacement along the ocean surface, there may be more than 300 feet of corresponding vertical movement in the thermocline far below the surface! Due to the small vertical movement along the ocean surface, oceanic Rossby waves are undetectable by the human eye. Scientists typically rely on satellite radar altimetry to detect the massive waves. Atmospheric Rossby Waves According to the National Weather Service, atmospheric Rossby waves form primarily as a result of the Earth's geography. Rossby waves help transfer heat from the tropics toward the poles and cold air toward the tropics in an attempt to return atmosphere to balance. They also help locate the jet stream and mark out the track of surface low pressure systems. The slow motion of these waves often results in fairly long, persistent weather patterns Source NOAA Edit: planetary waves on the sun. Letter details The detection of Rossby-like waves on the Sun Scott W. McIntosh, William J. Cramer Robert J. Leamon Nature Astronomy volume 1, Article number: 0086 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41550-017-0086
March 9, 2017 This movie clip shows a global map of Mars with atmospheric changes from Feb. 18, 2017, through March 6, 2017, a period when two regional-scale dust storms appeared. It combines hundreds of images from the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The date for each map in the series is given at upper left. Dust storms appear as pale tan. In the opening frames, one appears left of center, near the top (north) of the map, then grows in size as it moves south, eventually spreading to about half the width of the map after reaching the southern hemisphere. As the dust from that first storm becomes more diffuse in the south, another storm appears near the center of the map in the final frames. In viewing the movie, it helps to understand some of the artifacts produced by the nature of MARCI images when seen in animation. MARCI acquires images in swaths from pole-to-pole during the dayside portion of each orbit. The camera can cover the entire planet in just over 12 orbits, and takes about one day to accumulate this coverage. The individual swaths for each day are assembled into a false-color, map-projected mosaic for the day. Equally spaced blurry areas that run from south-to-north result from the high off-nadir viewing geometry in those parts of each swath, a product of the spacecraft’s low orbit. Portions with sharper-looking details are the central part of an image, viewing more directly downward through less atmosphere than the obliquely viewed portions . MARCI has a 180-degree field of view, and Mars fills about 78 percent of that field of view when the camera is pointed down at the planet. However, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter often is pointed to one side or the other off its orbital track in order to acquire targeted observations by other imaging systems on the spacecraft. When such rolls exceed about 20 degrees, gaps occur in the mosaic of MARCI swaths. Other dark gaps appear where data are missing. It isn't easy to see the actual dust motion in the atmosphere in these images, owing to the apparent motion of these artifacts. However, by concentrating on specific surface features (craters, prominent ice deposits, etc.) and looking for the tan clouds of dust, it is possible to see where the storms start and how they grow, move and eventually dissipate. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, provided and operates MARCI. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the spacecraft. Credit NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS ENLARGE Downloads Original (1200x675) 5.21 MB image/gif DOWNLOAD Embed Embed this resource by pasting the following code into your website: More Like This
This image of a spiral-shaped dust storm was captured by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC.) The brown color of the storm contrasts well against the white of the polar ice cap. Image Credit: ESA/Mars Express/HRSC
This series of images captured by the Visual Monitoring Camera onboard ESA’s Mars Express covers about 70 minutes of motion as a dust storm moves along the north polar ice cap of Mars on 29 May 2019. The storm moved with an approximate speed of 20 m/s. The polar ice cap covers much of the left of the image while the storm is seen on the right. Mars Express was moving along its orbit but the images have been re-projected as if the observer was stationary, to make the motion of the storm clearer. The illumination angle of the Sun changes between image frames, highlighting the structures in the dust clouds. The black margins arise from the variable distance of Mars Express to the planet along its orbit: closer to the planet it cannot always image the same parts of the surface in consecutive images. Image Credit: ESA/GCP/UPV/EHU Bilbao
A montage of images showing both dust storms and clouds of water ice. Image Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
The yellow-white cloud in the bottom-center of this image is a Mars “dust tower” – a concentrated cloud of dust that can be lofted dozens of miles above the surface. The blue-white plumes are water vapor clouds. This image was taken on Nov. 30, 2010, by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
NASA’s Mars Climate Sounder instrument mapped both hemispheres of Mars during the 2018 global dust storm. On the left, the tiny circle near the center marks the location of Curiosity. On the right, the three Tharsus Montes volcanoes are visible, as well as Olympus Mons. The colors show how much light is being blocked by the dust. Red is the most extreme, with only about 5% of the Sun’s energy reaching the surface. Image Credit: NASA/JPL
This graphic shows the ongoing contributions of NASA’s rovers and orbiters during 2018 Martian dust storm. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is always watching storms. This one is Utopia Planitia, on November 7th, 2007. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
The Martian atmosphere is a lot different than Earth’s. It’s over 95% carbon dioxide, and contains only trace amounts of oxygen and water vapor. But that trace amount of water vapor still plays a pronounced role in the climate.
This simulation shows the cloud lifecycle on Mars over one day. Cleary visible are the three volcanic peaks at Tharsis Montes, as well as Olympus Mons. Image Credit: NASA/Ames Research Center/D. Ellsworth
Mars’ north polar ice cap, captured by NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor. Some researchers concluded that if melted, the polar ice cap would create enough water to cover Mars in 1.5 meters of water. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
Impact-generated climate change is one possible cause of Mars’ early warm, wet environment. Image Credit: Colaprete et al, 2004.
This image is from a scientific visualization of the electric currents around Mars. Electric currents (blue and red arrows) envelop Mars in a nested, double-loop structure that wraps continuously around the planet from its day side to its night side. These current loops distort the solar wind magnetic field (not pictured), which drapes around Mars to create an induced magnetosphere around the planet. In the process, the currents electrically connect Mars’ upper atmosphere and the induced magnetosphere to the solar wind, transferring electric and magnetic energy generated at the boundary of the induced magnetosphere (faint inner paraboloid) and at the solar wind bow shock (faint outer paraboloid). Credits: NASA/Goddard/MAVEN/CU Boulder/SVS/Cindy Starr
Mars is in the spotlight now, as both SpaceX and NASA are preparing their long range plans to send humans to the Red Planet. But Mars is an inhospitable environment, especially because of its tenuous and poisonous atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Did Mars have a better atmosphere in the past? How did it get destroyed, and what can we do to replenish it to make the planet more habitable in the future? Get an email announcement whenever we release a new video: Visit the sub-reddit Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / firstname.lastname@example.org /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 If you were to travel to the surface of Mars right now, without a proper spacesuit, your life would become immediately, uh, unpleasant. With a dramatically lower atmospheric pressure, all the air in your lungs would come rushing out. And without the oxygen in your blood stream, you’d pass out within seconds, and asphyxiate within a couple of minutes. Mars, sucks. And the biggest reason is that Mars is so hostile is because of its terrible atmosphere. Here on Earth, you’re experiencing a column of air, pressing down on you, enabling all that breathing that you seem to like to do. The atmosphere on Mars, on the other hand, is only 1% the pressure we have here on Earth. Furthermore, it’s made almost entirely of carbon dioxide, which I’m sure you know is poisonous to breathe. The lack of a thick atmosphere means that Mars is cold, so cold all the water on the planet is locked up in eternal polar ice caps. So cold that carbon dioxide freezes out of the atmosphere and falls as snow in the north pole. Just in case you weren’t aware, temperatures need to be -78.5 degrees C for carbon dioxide to freeze. Was Mars always this way? What changed to make the planet so terrible, and what could we do to bring it back? Caption author (Polish) Lepsza Nazwa
An image from an animation of Mars’ magnetic field interacting with the stellar wind. While Earth has a protective global dynamo magnetosphere, Mars a much weaker induced magnetosphere. Image Credit: NASA/Goddard/MAVEN/CU Boulder/SVS">
Five years after NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft entered into orbit around Mars, data from the mission has led to the creation of a map of electric current systems in the Martian atmosphere. Unlike Earth, Mars lacks a protective global magnetic field to shield its upper atmosphere from the solar wind. Instead, the solar wind crashes into the upper atmosphere and its magnetic field lines drape around the planet. This creates an induced magnetosphere that tugs on charged particles in the Mars upper atmosphere, generating electric currents. Now, MAVEN’s detailed measurements of the magnetic environment surrounding Mars have revealed the shape of these electric currents for the first time. : Read more Press release Music credit: “A Lucid Dream” and “Shimmer Oscillations” by James Joshua Otto, via Universal Production Music Video credit: NASA/Goddard/MAVEN/CU Boulder/SVS Producer: Dan Gallagher (USRA) Lead Data Visualizer: Cindy Starr (GST) Data Visualizers: Tom Bridgman (GST) Greg Shirah (NASA/GSFC) Horace Mitchell (NASA/GSFC) Videographer: John Caldwell (AIMM) Editor: Dan Gallagher (USRA) Lead Scientist: Robin Ramstad (University of Colorado Boulder) Scientist: David Brain (University of Colorado Boulder) Science Writer: William Steigerwald (NASA/GSFC) Animators: Walt Feimer (KBRwyle) Jonathan North (USRA) Chris Smith (USRA) John Blackwell (LPI) Support: Tom Mason (LASP) Bruce Jakosky (LASP) Technical Support: Aaron E. Lepsch (ADNET) This video is public domain and along with other supporting visualizations can be downloaded from NASA Goddard's Scientific Visualization Studio at: If you liked this video, subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: Follow NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center · Instagram · Twitter- NASA GODDARD · Twitter-NASA GODDARD PICS · Facebook: · Flickr
Magnetic filed lines on Mars, left, vs Earth, right. It’s clear which magnetic field protects its planet better. Image Credit: Left: NASA/Goddard/MAVEN/CU Boulder/SVS. Right: Public Domain, wikipedia
An image from the paper showing the formative current systems in the Martian induced magnetosphere. Generator currents are colored blue while load currents are colored red. Image Credit: Ramstad et al, 2020.
The new map is based on data from two long-running spacecraft: NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey. Each spacecraft used heat-sensitive instruments to find the ice, because buried ice changes the temperature of the surface. To be sure that it was ice they were seeing, the scientists cross-referenced their work with other data — like ice seen in radar instruments and Mars Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer, which is optimized for spotting water ice deposits.