Mission to Jupiter


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J U P I T E R!!

View of the Sun from Jupiter



New Horizons' long-range camera LORRI monitored Jupiter's rotation as the spacecraft approached on January 9 and 10, 2007.
The 11 images in this animation were each taken an hour apart and cover one full rotation of the planet.
During the animation, first Ganymede and then Io cross the field of view, casting their shadows onto the planet.
There are a total of six of these movies planned for New Horizons' approach to Jupiter; the last of those should have been taken on Sunday,
so stay tuned to the New Horizons site for those. There are only three other sets of images planned for the next month: a handful of "Kodak moments,"
images taken primarily for their prettiness.
NASA / JHUAPL / SwRI / Animation by E. Lakdawalla

A Journey to Jupiter

Published on Feb 8, 2017 This animation of Jupiter is made from more than 1,000 images taken by 91 amateurs from around the world between the 19th of December 2014 and the 31st of March 2015. After collecting the images, they have been remaped into cylindrical projections by Christoffer Svenske and Johan Warell. I have then color corrected, stacked and seamlessly stitched them into a total of 54 complete maps. To slow down the rapid motion, I have interpolated an image in between each pair of maps for a total of 107. The polar projections are a little special as I have made them stretch from pole to pole, not just from pole (center) to equator (outside) as traditionally represented. The reason is that I find it more interesting to be able to follow the movements of all the cloudbelts regardless of the projection. It has taken more than a year to complete this video that shows the motion of Jupiter's cloud belts and the rotation of the Great Red Spot in high resolution, all accelerated one million times! It also shows the technical skills of the world wide community of amateur planetary photographers to be able to reach this high level of details that can be tracked across the planet during 250 revolutions. Thanks to all of you for contributing to this project.

The Voyager 3 project from Sweden


Voyager 3 from Peter Rosén on Vimeo.

In 1979, the Voyager 1 probe took a stunning series of images on its final approach to Jupiter that clearly showed the intricate movement of the cloudbelts for the first time. 35 years later, almost to the day, a group of 7 swedish amateur astronomers set out to replicate this odyssey and the historical NASA-footage but with images taken with their own ground-based telescopes. Welcome to the Voyager 3 Project.

The magnetic field of Jupiter and co-rotation enforcing currents. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Ruslik0

Jupiter’s Magnetosphere Will Blow Your Mind While it Kills Your Spacecraft

The Juno spacecraft will provide insights on how Jupiter's magnetic field is generated.
Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Exploring Jupiter's Magnetic Field

Published on Jun 29, 2016 NASA is sending the Juno spacecraft to Jupiter, to peer beneath its cloudy surface
and explore the giant planet's structure and magnetic field. Juno's twin magnetometers,
built at Goddard Space Flight Center, will give scientists their first look within Jupiter
at the powerful dynamo that drives its magnetic field. In this interview, Deputy Principal Investigator
Jack Connerney discusses the Juno mission and its magnetometers.
This video is public domain and :can be downloaded from the Scientific Visualization Studio at Credit: NASA/Goddard/Daniel Gallagher Music from the Killer Tracks catalog: "Beep" – Niklas Ahman "Jupiter's Eye" – Christian Telford, David Travis Edwards, Matthew St Laurent, and Robert Anthony Navarro "Original Conquest" –Laurent Dury "Through the Mist" – Andrew Britton and David Goldsmith "Lost Roads" – Gregg Lehrman

Swirly Southern Picture Of Jupiter Makes Us Want To Visit Right Now

A view the Cassini spacecraft took during its flyby of Jupiter?s southern pole in 2000. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Gimme a rocketship ? we want to see what those bands are made of! This is a strange view of Jupiter,
a familiar gas giant that humanity has sent several spacecraft to. This particular view, taken in 2000
and highlighted on the European Space Agency website recently, shows the southern hemisphere of the mighty planet.


The main page for Galelio Countdown


Amateur astronomers regularly analyse their own observations and many participate in studies of the atmosphere of Jupiter.
This image shows a nearly full map of Jupiter compiled by the Italian amateur astronomer,
Marco Vedovato, from observations obtained by Tiziano Olivetti in Thailand, Christopher Go in the Philippines,
and Alexei Pace in Malta. Full maps like this are only possible through the collaboration from observers around the world.
The composition of these images by other amateurs like Marco Vedovato helps scientists in their effort to characterise the
dynamic atmosphere of Jupiter. Image credit: M. Vedovato/T. Olivetti/C. Go/A. Pace.

Jupiter’s structure and composition. (Image Credit: Kelvinsong CC by S.A. 3.0)

Jupiter's Moons Infographic

A “family portrait” of the four Galilean satellites (Io Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) around Jupiter,
taken by the New Horizons spacecraft and released in 2007.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

NASA | Jupiter in 4k Ultra HD

Published on Oct 13, 2015 New imagery from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope is revealing details never before seen on Jupiter.
High-resolution maps and spinning globes (rendered in the 4k Ultra HD format) are the first products
to come from a program to study the solar system’s outer planets each year using Hubble.
The observations are designed to capture a broad range of features, including winds, clouds,
storms and atmospheric chemistry. These annual studies will help current and future scientists
see how such giant worlds change over time. "This video is in the public domain. It can be downloaded along with the new Jupiter globes and maps Learn more at: http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/god... Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/iTunes/f... Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NASA.GSFC Or find us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Jupiter: The Largest Planet

Uploaded on Jan 29, 2010 This video is an adaptation of the breezy Science on a Sphere production by supremely talented members of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio. This video explores Jupiter's role as the 800 pound gorilla of our solar system, with stops on its fascinating moons and the big red spot. Additional video from NASA JPL and ESA Hubble. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


Jupiter: May Be “Hairy” with Dark Matter

The root of a dark matter hair produced from particles going through Jupiter’s core would be about 1 trillion times denser than average.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


TAKE A LOOK BENEATH JUPITER’S CLOUDS

This radio image of Jupiter was captured by the VLA in New Mexico. The three colors in the picture correspond
to three different radio wavelengths: 2 cm in blue, 3 cm in gold, and 6 cm in red. Synchrotron radiation produces the pink glow around the planet.
Image: Imke de Pater, Michael H. Wong (UC Berkeley), Robert J. Sault (Univ. Melbourne).


Space News - Jupiter Radio Map

Radio map of Jupiter reveals what's beneath clouds

Two images of the Great Red Spot. The lower one is a Hubble optical image, showing the Spot and the familiar swirling cloud patterns.
The upper image is a radio map of the same region, showing the movement of ammonia up to 90 km below the clouds.
Credit: Radio image by Michael H. Wong, Imke de Pater (UC Berkeley), Robert J. Sault (Univ. Melbourne).
(Optical image by NASA, ESA, A.A. Simon (GSFC), M.H. Wong (UC Berkeley), and G.S. Orton (JPL-Caltech) )



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Missions To Jupiter

Google's Doodle celebrating Juno's arrival July 4, 2016

NASA's Juno mission page

Status of the Deep Space Network

The Juno Mission

JUNO MISSION LOG

Infographic: Juno, Built to Withstand Intense Radiation Environments

Juno has been headed for Jupiter since 2011 to study the gas giant’s atmosphere, aurora, gravity and magnetic field.
This infographic illustrates the radiation environments Juno has traveled through on its journey near Earth and in interplanetary space.
All of space is filled with particles, and when these particles get moving at high speeds, they’re called radiation.
NASA studies space radiation to better protect spacecraft as they travel through space, as well as to understand how this space environment
influences planetary evolution. After Jupiter orbit insertion on July 4, 2016, Juno will have the chance to study one of the most intense radiation
environments in our solar system.


Spectacular VLT images of Jupiter presented before Juno’s arrival
EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY PRESS RELEASE

In preparation for the imminent arrival of NASA’s Juno spacecraft in July 2016,
astronomers used ESO’s Very Large Telescope to obtain spectacular new infrared images
of Jupiter using the VISIR instrument. This false-colour image was created by selecting
and combining the best images obtained from many short VISIR exposures at a wavelength of 5 micrometres.
Image credit: ESO/L. Fletcher.


False colour images generated from VLT observations in February 2016 (left) and March 2016 (right),
showing two different faces of Jupiter. The bluer areas are cold and cloud-free, the orangey areas are warm and cloudy,
more colourless bright regions are warm and cloud-free, and dark regions are cold and cloudy (such as the Great Red Spot
and the prominent ovals). The wave pattern over the North Equatorial Band shows up in orange.
These views were created from VLT/VISIR infrared images. The orange images were obtained at 10.7 micrometres wavelength
and highlight the different temperatures and presence of ammonia.
The blue images at 8.6 micrometres highlight variations in cloud opacity.
Image credit: ESO/L. Fletcher.


This view compares a lucky imaging view of Jupiter from VISIR (left) at infrared wavelengths with a
very sharp amateur image in visible light from about the same time (right).
Image credit: ESO/L. Fletcher/Damian Peach.


Home/News/Juno gets the first-ever view of Jupiter's North Pole Juno gets the first-ever view of Jupiter's North Pole Some never-before-seen features come to light. By Carl Engelking | Published: Friday, September 02, 2016


Even from afar, we always knew Jupiter was a bit of an oddball, and upon closer examination we were correct. On Aug. 27, NASA’s Juno spacecraft, with all its instruments blazing, swooped within 2,500 miles of the Jovian surface
and beamed back the first-ever images of its north pole. It was the first of 36 planned flybys planned for the mission,
so there’s plenty more where this came from. Still, even from the first 6-megabyte download, Jupiter’s revealing
why it’s unlike any other planet in our solar system.


An infrared glimpse at Jupiter’s south pole.
(Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS) “First glimpse of Jupiter’s north pole, and it looks like nothing we have seen or imagined before,”
said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the
Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio in a press statement Friday September 02, 2016.


Juno probe peers below Jupiter's clouds


Scientists say the Solar System's biggest planet is showing itself to be far more complex than anyone thought. Credit bbc.com"


Infographic: Juno, Built to Withstand Intense Radiation Environments -
PHOTO MONTAGE OF THE LAUNCH

Technician’s install Juno’s titanium vault. (Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LMSS)


The JUNO ProBe on it's way to Florida


Exploded diagram of the Juno Probe


Atlas Rocket Ready to launch


Juno Mission Clearing the Lightning Rod's Towers


Juno soars skyward to Jupiter on Aug. 5, 2011 from launch pad 41 at
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 12:25 p.m. EDT. View from the VAB roof.
Credit: Ken Kremer/


Juno Mission on the way!!!


Juno Mission Launch Vehicle Diagram


NASA prepares its Jupiter probe JUNO for arrival blogger-avatarby Jon Fingas July 08, 2015

It's been a long time in coming, but NASA's Juno probe is finally close to reaching Jupiter.
NASA reports that the spacecraft is "on track" to arrive on July 4th, 2016 (how American!),
and that the ground crew is tweaking the flight plan to at once give Juno more time and complete tasks ahead of schedule.
The ship's initial orbit is splitting into two in order to test instruments before the science gathering starts.
Also, it'll take 14 days to complete an orbit rather than the originally planned 11.
[Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech]

NASA prepares its Jupiter probe JUNO for arrival blogger-avatarby Jon Fingas July 08, 2015

Since its launch five years ago, there have been three forces tugging at NASA's Juno spacecraft
as it speeds through the solar system. The sun, Earth and Jupiter have all been influential --
a gravitational trifecta of sorts. At times, Earth was close enough to be the frontrunner.
More recently, the sun has had the most clout when it comes to Juno's trajectory.
Today, it can be reported that Jupiter is now in the gravitational driver’s seat,
and the basketball court-sized spacecraft is not looking back.

Home/News/NASA returns to Jupiter 20 years after Galileo
NASA returns to Jupiter 20 years after Galileo
The Juno spacecraft meets the gas giant July 4, finally ending the decades-long hiatus of Jupiter missions.
By Eric Betz | Published: Monday, December 7, 2015

The Juno spacecraft will enter orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016,
picking up the exploration efforts NASA's Galileo mission began 20 years ago.


Illustration of NASA’s Juno spacecraft firing its main engine
to slow down and go into orbit around Jupiter.
Lockheed Martin built the Juno spacecraft for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Protecting Juno’s Heart by EVAN GOUGH on NOVEMBER 4, 2015

A computer-generated image of the Juno spacecraft. NASA/JPL-Caltech


Juno's Orbit

Uploaded on Jun 28, 2011
Find out more at Here

and HERE
Juno's unique polar orbit is the key to the mission's design. What's so special about it?
Credit: NASA/JPL/SwRI Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


Juno spacecraft and its science instruments. Image credit: NASA/JPL


Juno orbital graphic


7 DAYS OUT FROM ORBITAL INSERTION, NASA’S JUNO IMAGES JUPITER AND ITS LARGEST MOONS

This annotated color view of Jupiter and its four largest moons -- Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto --
was taken by the JunoCam camera on NASA's Juno spacecraft on June 21, 2016, at a distance of
6.8 million miles (10.9 million kilometers) from Jupiter.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Data from the NASA probe's Waves investigation was converted into audio. It crossed into the area just outside the magnetosphere,
known as the bow shock on June 24, 2016 and entered the low density magnetosphere on June 25, 2016

WHAT CAN WE EXPECT FROM JUNO’S MISSION TO JUPITER?

Illustration of NASA's Juno spacecraft firing its main engine to slow down and go into orbit around Jupiter.
Lockheed Martin built the Juno spacecraft for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Credit: NASA/Lockheed Martin


Jupiter: Into the Unknown (NASA Juno Mission Trailer)

Published on Jun 23, 2016 Secrets lie deep within Jupiter, shrouded in the solar system's strongest magnetic field
and most lethal radiation belts. On July 4, 2016, NASA's Juno spacecraft will plunge into
uncharted territory, entering orbit around the gas giant and passing closer than any spacecraft before.
Juno will see Jupiter for what it really is, but first it must pass the trial of orbit insertion.
For more information: and here Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


JUNO CAPTURES A STUNNING JOVIAN ‘PEARL’ December 2016


New Juno image of Jupiter taken on Dec. 11, 2016. Processed by Damian Peach

This is the original image sent by JunoCam on Dec. 11 and features the eighth in a string of large storms in the planet’s southern hemisphere. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

4-frame animation spans 24 Jovian days, or about 10 Earth days. The passage of time is accelerated by a factor of 600,000. Some of the ovals are visible as well as a variety of jets – west to east and east to west. Credit: NASA

JUNO BUZZES JUPITER A MERE 4,300 KM’S ABOVE THE CLOUD TOPS

Illustration of NASA's Juno spacecraft firing its main engine to slow down and go into orbit around Jupiter. Lockheed Martin built the Juno spacecraft for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Lockheed Martin

False color view of Jupiter’s polar haze, created by citizen scientist Gerald Eichstädt using data from the JunoCam instrument. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Eric Jorgensen

To accomplish its science objectives, Juno is orbiting Jupiter’s poles and passing very close to the planet, avoiding the most powerful (and hazardous) radiation belts in the process. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Juno’s Latest Close Flyby of Jupiter on This Week @NASA – February 3, 2017

Published on Feb 3, 2017 NASA’s Juno spacecraft made its latest close flyby of Jupiter Feb. 2 -- passing about 2,700 miles above the planet’s clouds. This was the fourth close flyby since Juno began orbiting Jupiter last year on July 4. During these close passes instruments on the spacecraft probe beneath the cloud cover to collect scientific data about the planet's structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. This information could help us better understand the planetary systems being discovered around other stars. Also, Cassini Sees Saturn’s Rings in Greater Detail, The Most Extreme Blazars, NASA at Super Bowl Event, NASA at NBA Black Heritage Celebration, and Day of Remembrance! Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

JUNO WILL GET NO CLOSER TO JUPITER DUE TO ENGINE TROUBLES

Jupiter’s south pole. captured by the JunoCam on Feb. 2, 2017, from an altitude of about 62,800 miles (101,000 kilometers) above the cloud tops. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/John Landino

This amateur-processed image was taken on Dec. 11th, 2016, at 9:27 a.m. PST (12:27 p.m. EST), as NASA’s Juno spacecraft performed its third close flyby of Jupiter. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Eric Jorgensen

Jupiter: Into the Unknown (NASA Juno Mission Trailer)

Published on Jun 23, 2016 Secrets lie deep within Jupiter, shrouded in the solar system's strongest magnetic field and most lethal radiation belts. On July 4, 2016, NASA's Juno spacecraft will plunge into uncharted territory, entering orbit around the gas giant and passing closer than any spacecraft before. Juno will see Jupiter for what it really is, but first it must pass the trial of orbit insertion. For more information: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Published on Feb 3, 2017 NASA’s Juno spacecraft made its latest close flyby of Jupiter Feb. 2 -- passing about 2,700 miles above the planet’s clouds. This was the fourth close flyby since Juno began orbiting Jupiter last year on July 4. During these close passes instruments on the spacecraft probe beneath the cloud cover to collect scientific data about the planet's structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. This information could help us better understand the planetary systems being discovered around other stars. Also, Cassini Sees Saturn’s Rings in Greater Detail, The Most Extreme Blazars, NASA at Super Bowl Event, NASA at NBA Black Heritage Celebration, and Day of Remembrance! Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Juice Mission

Artist concept of JUICE, an ESA concept for a Jupiter-moons orbiter mission. Credit: ESA


Jupiter-Bound Spacecraft Takes A Small Step To Seek Habitable Worlds by ELIZABETH HOWELL on DECEMBER 1, 2014

Artist?s impression of the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) near Jupiter and one of its moons, Europa. Credit: ESA/AOES
It takes years of painstaking work to get a spacecraft off the ground. So when you have a spacecraft like JUICE (the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer)
set to launch in 2022, you need to back up about a decade to get things figured out. How will the spacecraft get there?
What science instruments will it carry? What will the spacecraft look like and what systems will support its work?

SPACEX's Mission Proposal

SpaceX’s newly revealed Interplanetary Transit System will make travel to Mars, and other destinations in our Solar System, possible. Credit: SpaceX


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Jupiter's Moon IO

Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon Io by Matt Williams on October 21, 2015


Global view of Jupiter’s moon Io, obtained during the tenth orbit of Jupiter by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft. Credit: NASA

Enhanced-color Galileo image showing a dark spot produced by a major eruption at Pillan Patera in 1997. Credit: NASA/JPL

False-color mosaic of the surface of Io. Large mountains appear in dark grey and black. Credit: USGS Astrogeology Science Center

Model of the possible interior composition of Io with various features labelled. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Kelvinsong

Io's Volcanoes are in the Wrong Place



This five-frame sequence of images from NASA?s New Horizons mission captures the giant plume
from Io?s Tvashtar volcano in March, 2007.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute.
Jupiter?s moon Io features at least 400 active volcanoes, making it the most volcanically active world in our Solar System.
However, the location of the volcanoes on Io just doesn?t match up with scientific models that predict how the moon?s interior is heated.
?Rigorous statistical analysis of the distribution of volcanoes in the new global geologic map of Io,?
said Christopher Hamilton of the University of Maryland, College Park and the Goddard Spaceflight Center.
?We found a systematic eastward offset between observed and predicted volcano locations that can?t be reconciled
with any existing solid body tidal heating models.?

LTvashtar Paterae


Uploaded on Apr 30, 2011 A plume erupts from the Io's Tvashtar volcanic area as the moon transits Jupiter. Io's own shadow is visible as a dark disk on the Jupiter's cloud tops. Filaments (from an as yet unexplained mechanism) are visible in the plume. The appearance of Tvashtar's plume was based on this composite of images from the New Horizons spacecraft: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070404.html Rendered in real time using the VESTA engine. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Electrical "Volcanoes" of Jupiter's Moon Io | Space News


Published on Apr 25, 2013 The so-called "volcanoes" on Jupiter's moon Io have long been conventionally interpreted as the effect of tidal forces acting on the moon.
But a recent scientific paper has announced that this longstanding explanation does not fit with the actual location of the plumes.
Is it possible that this failure of theory could cause planetary scientists to reconsider the electrical explanation first offered by
astrophysicist Thomas Gold and later by plasma scientists Anthony Peratt and Alex Dessler?
Subscribe to Thunderbolts Update weekly newsletter: http://eepurl.com/ETy41 Thunderbolts Project Home: http://www.thunderbolts.info Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thunderboltsp... Picture of the Day: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/daily... Electric Universe (Wal Thornhill): http://www.holoscience.com/wp/ Essential Guide to the Electric Universe: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-co... Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Pictures of Io’s auroral activity, captured by the Galileo spacecraft on October 16, 1998. Credit: NASA/JPL/University Of Arizona (PIRL)

Mosaic of Voyager 1 images of Io’s south polar region, which includes two of Io’s ten highest peaks –
Euboea Montes (upper right) and Haemus Mons (left). Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS

Time-lapse sequence of clear-filter images of Io during the eclipse of January 1, 2001.
Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS

Lava Lake Loki on Jupiter's moon Io, up close
Date: May 1, 2015
Source:University of Arizona



The LBT image of Loki Patera (orange) laid over a Voyager image of the volcanic depression.
The emission (in orange color) appears spread out in the north-south direction due to the telescope point-spread function;
it is mainly localized to the southern corners of the lake.
Credit: LBTO- NASA

The Interior of IO


Of Jupiter?s four large Galilean satellites, Io is the closest to the planet.
It?s about the same size as Europa and the Earth?s Moon. It may be the strangest satellite humans have ever studied.
Voyager photos of Io revealed erupting volcanoes. This wasn?t too surprising, because Jupiter?s intense tidal forces heat
the interior of the satellite, just like on Europa. But subsequent observations show that volcanoes are always erupting
on Io - in fact, it?s the most volcanically active world in the solar system! Material shot up by the many volcanoes
rises high above the surface of the little satellite and then falls back in a lazy arc due to Io?s weak gravity.
Volcanic activity adds about 10 centimeters of new material to the surface each year.

Animation of IO's transit of Jupiter


A Dec. 24, 2014 (EST) timelapse of Io transiting Jupiter. Credit: IKYLSP/Reddit
On Christmas Eve, as millions upon millions of people focused on wrapping gifts and getting ready for the holidays,
an amateur astronomer gave a small gift to the world. The person turned a telescope and camera to Jupiter and caught volcanic
Io going across the face of the gas giant. This happened just a few days after professional astronomers caught a rare eclipse
involving that very same moon.

Jupiter's Moon: Io Rotation - HD Kurdistan Planetarium Kurdistan Planetarium


Published on Apr 26, 2012 Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, the fourth-largest moon in the Solar System.
It was named after Io, a priestess of Hera who became one of the lovers of Zeus. Nevertheless, it was simply referred to as Jupiter I, or
The first satellite of Jupiter, until mid-20th century. With over 400 active volcanoes, Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System. Its surface is dotted with more than 100 mountains,
some which are taller than Earth's Mount Everest. Unlike most satellites in the outer Solar System (which have a thick coating of ice),
Io is primarily composed of silicate rock surrounding a molten iron or iron sulfide core. Although not proven, recent data from the Galileo orbiter indicates that Io might have its own magnetic field Io has an extremely
thin atmosphere made up mostly of sulfur dioxide (SO2). If a surface data or collection vessel were to land on Io in the future,
it would have to be extremely tough (similar to the tank-like bodies of the Soviet Venera landers) to survive the radiation and magnetic fields
that originate from Discovered by Galileo Galilei Discovery date January 7, 1610 Designations Alternate name Jupiter I Adjective Ionian Orbital characteristics Periapsis 420,000 km (0.002 807 AU) Apoapsis 423,400 km (0.002 830 AU) Mean orbit radius 421,700 km (0.002 819 AU) Eccentricity 0.0041 Orbital period 1.769 137 786 d (42 h) Average orbital speed 17.334 km/s Inclination 2.21° (to the ecliptic) 0.05° (to Jupiter's equator) Satellite of Jupiter Physical characteristics Dimensions 3,660.0 × 3,637.4 × 3,630.6 km Mean radius 1,821.3 km (0.286 Earths)[1] Surface area 41,910,000 km2 (0.082 Earths) Volume 2.53 × 1010 km3 (0.023 Earths) Mass 8.9319 × 1022 kg (0.015 Earths) Mean density 3.528 g/cm3 Equatorial surface gravity 1.796 m/s2 (0.183 g) Escape velocity 2.558 km/s Rotation period synchronous Equatorial rotation velocity 271 km/h Albedo 0.63 ± 0.02 Surface temp. Surface min mean max 130 K 200 K Apparent magnitude 5.02 (opposition) Atmosphere Surface pressure trace Composition 90% sulfur dioxide Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Electrical "Volcanoes" of Jupiter's Moon Io | Space News

Published on Apr 25, 2013 The so-called "volcanoes" on Jupiter's moon Io have long been conventionally interpreted
as the effect of tidal forces acting on the moon. But a recent scientific paper has announced
that this longstanding explanation does not fit with the actual location of the plumes.
Is it possible that this failure of theory could cause planetary scientists to reconsider
the electrical explanation first offered by astrophysicist Thomas Gold and later by plasma scientists Anthony Peratt and Alex Dessler?
Subscribe to Thunderbolts Update weekly newsletter: http://eepurl.com/ETy41 Thunderbolts Project Home: http://www.thunderbolts.info Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thunderboltsp... Picture of the Day: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/daily... Electric Universe (Wal Thornhill): http://www.holoscience.com/wp/ Essential Guide to the Electric Universe: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-co... Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


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Jupiter's Moon Europa


EUROPA INFO GRAPHIC

AIt was Sparks who led the Hubble plume studies in both 2014 and 2016.

Image: These composite images show a suspected plume of material erupting two years apart from the same location on Jupiter’s icy moon Europa. The newly imaged plume, shown at right, rises about 100 kilometers above Europa’s frozen surface. The image was taken Feb. 22, 2016. The plume in the image at left, observed by Hubble on March 17, 2014, originates from the same location. It is estimated to be about 50 kilometers high. The snapshot of Europa, superimposed on the Hubble image, was assembled from data from NASA’s Galileo mission to Jupiter. Credit: NASA/ESA/W. Sparks (STScI)/USGS Astrogeology Science Center.

This composite image shows suspected plumes of water vapor erupting at the 7 o’clock position off the limb of Jupiter’s moon Europa. The Hubble data were taken on January 26, 2014.
Credit: Credits: NASA/ESA/W. Sparks (STScI)/USGS Astrogeology Science Center

Image: These images of the surface of the Jovian moon Europa, taken by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft, focus on a “region of interest” on the icy moon. The image at left traces the location of the erupting plumes of material, observed by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope in 2014 and again in 2016. The plumes are located inside the area surrounded by the green oval. The green oval also corresponds to a warm region on Europa’s surface, as identified by the temperature map at right. The map is based on observations by the Galileo spacecraft. The warmest area is colored bright red. Credit: NASA/ESA/W. Sparks (STScI)/USGS Astrogeology Science Center.

Artist's concept of a cryobot in the ocean of Jupiter's moon Europa. Image credit: NASA.

NASA's Report on a mission to Europa.

NASA's Report on the Their Mission to Europa

Radar Techniques Used in Antarctica Will Scour Europa for Life-Supporting Environments Source: University of Texas AustinPosted June 1, 2015 8:32

NASA Unveils Most Amazing View of Jupiter's Moon Europa Ever (Video) by Elizabeth Howell, Space.com Contributor | November 24, 2014 03:31pm ET

An incredible, reprocessed picture of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the mysterious natural satellite's amazing colors
as they have never been seen before. The original photos of Europa were collected by the Galileo spacecraft, which explored Jupiter and its moons from orbit in the 1990s.
NASA officials reprocessed Galileo's data using modern imaging techniques that improved on an enhanced-color view
of Europa the agency created in 2001. The new photo, released on Nov. 21, shows the largest proportion of Europa's surface at
the highest images resolution, NASA officials said.

When a NASA spacecraft sets off to explore Jupiter's icy moon Europa to look for the ingredients of life,
radar equipment designed to pierce the ice of Antarctica will be among the passengers.

EUROPA Plate Tectonics


This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa.
The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color
composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa.
This image was taken in 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera
onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter.

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Europa REMASTERED!!!


NASA?s ?Remastered? View of Europa is the Best Yet by MATT WILLIAMS on NOVEMBER 21, 2014 Europa.
The cracked, icy surface of Europa. The smoothness of the surface has led many scientists to conclude that oceans exist beneath it.
Credit: NASA/JPLredit: NASA

The Lure of Europa - Featuring Bill Nye and special guests


Published on Aug 4, 2014 Europa is a moon of Jupiter that may have three crucial ingredients for life: liquid water, energy, and nutrients. What,
if anything, can be found in the great oceans of Europa? Could NASA look for life? How could we explore affordably?
Bill Nye The Science Guy, eminent NASA scientists, and prominent legislators examined just these questions in a public event
inside the halls of Congress. This was recorded live on July 15th, 2014.
Recorded by Tushar Dayal. Speakers (in order of appearance): * Casey Dreier (Director of Advocacy for The Planetary Society and event emcee) * Rep. Lamar Smith (Chairman, House Science Committee; Texas 21st District) * Rep. John Culberson (Texas 7th District) * Rep. Adam Schiff (California 21st District) * Dr. Ellen Stofan (Chief Scientist, NASA) * Dr. Robert Pappalardo (Europa Study Scientist, JPL) * Bill Nye, The Science Guy (CEO of The Planetary Society)

Europa: Ocean World


Published on Nov 21, 2014 Scientists believe there is an ocean hidden beneath the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa.
NASA-JPL astrobiologist Kevin Hand explains why scientists are so excited about the potential of this ice-covered world
to answer one of humanity's most profound questions

Published on Jan 1, 2014 Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Evidence points strongly to a global subsurface ocean beneath an ice shell.
The paucity of large craters argues for a surface age of only 60 million years, implying that Europa is still geologically active.
Tidal flexing and nonsynchronous rotation of the floating ice shell generate stresses that can fracture and deform the surface
to create Europa's troughs, ridges, and bands. Europa's astonishing geology and astrobiological potential make it a top priority
for spacecraft exploration. von K?rm?n Lecture Speaker: Dr. Robert Pappalardo Principal Scientist & Director's Fellow, JPL Planetary Science and Life Detection Section Release Date: 15 November 2007 Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

NASA 360 Talks - Alien Ocean

Published on Nov 13, 2015 Could life exist on Europa? It may sound farfetched, but this Jovian moon is the most likely place to find life
in our solar system thanks to an enormous underground ocean positioned just beneath its icy surface.
Watch as Robert Pappalardo, Europa Project Scientist at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, discusses Europa,
its potential for life, and the upcoming mission that is being planned to visit this compelling moon.
This video was developed from a live recording at the AIAA SPACE 2015 conference in September 2015.
To watch the full talk given at the conference click here Category People & Blogs License Standard YouTube License

Why NASA looks to Europa to find the building blocks of life

NASA wants to send an expedition to Jupiter's moon, Europa,
to find the ocean it believes lies under the ice -- and the building blocks for life it thinks it will find there.

Screenshot by Michelle Starr/CNET
When it comes to life, biologists have long hypothesised that its origins -- on Earth,
at least -- were in thermal vents on the ocean floor, following a period of spontaneous metabolism before life began.
Thermal vents are rich sites for marine life -- especially in Antarctica where, in the darkness under the ice,
creatures proliferate in the warm, mineral-rich waters streaming from the vents.
It's just one of several theories, but if it's correct, Jupiter's moon Europa could be a very exciting place indeed.
Ever since plumes of vapour were discovered on Jupiter's moon in December last year, NASA has been floating theories about
the oceans that may be sloshing away under the layer of surface ice -- its similarities to theories about the early Earth
look like it may have the ingredients for life.

NASA EUROPA MISSION: ARE WE ALONE?


Europa's Jupiter-Facing Hemisphere

Source Region for Possible Europa Plumes

This reprojection of the official USGS basemap of Jupiter's moon Europa is centered at the estimated source region for potential water vapor plumes that might have been detected using the Hubble Space Telescope. The view is centered at -65 degrees latitude, 183 degrees longitude.

In addition to the plume source region, the image also shows the hemisphere of Europa that might be affected by plume deposits. This map is composed of images from NASA's Galileo and Voyager missions. The black region near the south pole results from gaps in imaging coverage. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute Last Updated: May 29, 2015 Editor: Sarah Loff

we're going to go to Europa again," NASA Administrator Charles Bolden said late last month(May 2015)


At 1,900 miles (3,100 kilometers) wide, Europa is only slightly smaller than Earth's moon.
But the Jovian satellite is very different from the one that lights up Earth's night sky;
Europa is covered by a shell of ice, beneath which sloshes an ocean of liquid water.

NASA Gives ‘GO’ for Mission to Alien Ocean World at Jupiter Moon Europa
by KEN KREMER on JUNE 18, 2015


Artist’s concept of NASA mission streaking over ocean world of Europa. Credit: NASA/JPL

Europa’s heaving ice might make more heat than scientists thought Apr 15, 2016 - See more

JA false color image shows Europa’s surprising surface. The inset includes regions where crustal plates appear to have broken up
and rafted to new positions. NASA/JPL - See more Europa’s heaving ice might make more heat than scientists thought Apr 15, 2016 A new set of experiments sheds light on how much heat is created when ice is deformed,
which could help scientists understand the possibility of a subsurface ocean on one of Jupiter’s moons Europa’s heaving ice might make more heat than scientists thought Apr 15, 2016 A new set of experiments sheds light on how much heat is created when ice is deformed,
which could help scientists understand the possibility of a subsurface ocean on one of Jupiter’s moons.
Jupiter’s moon Europa is under a constant gravitational assault. As it orbits, Europa’s icy surface heaves
and falls with the pull of Jupiter’s gravity, creating enough heat, scientists think,
to support a global ocean beneath the moon’s solid shell.

Hubble’s Surprising Find On Europa To Be Announced By NASA Monday September 26, 2016
Published: 21 Sep , 2016 by Evan Gough

NASA will make a “surprising” announcement about Jupiter’s moon Europa on Monday, Sept. 26th, at 2:00 PM EDT.
They haven’t said much, other than there is “surprising evidence of activity that may be related to the
presence of a subsurface ocean on Europa.” Europa is a prime target for the search for life because of its subsurface ocean.

Images from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft show the intricate detail of Europa’s icy surface.
Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ SETI Institute

What About A Mission To Europa?

Published on Jul 27, 2015 Europa’s water exists in a layer around the planet, encased in a layer of ice. Could there be life down there? Support us at: More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday : Follow us on Tumblr Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer

This artist’s illustration shows what plumes of water vapour might look like being ejected from Europa’s south pole.
Image: NASA, ESA, L. Roth (Southwest Research Institute, USA/University of Cologne, Germany) and M. Kornmesser.

Two models of the interior of Europa. Image: NASA/JPL.

More About Europa: The Search For Life On Europa Could Center On Celestial Party-Crashers A New Image of Europa Emerges Icy Hot: Europa’s Frozen Crust Could Be Warmer Than We Thought

Hubble may have caught jets of water squirting out of a potentially habitable moon Dave Mosher,Business Insider

A plume of subsurface ocean water vapor escapes through a crack in the icy crust of Europa, a moon of Jupiter CREDIR:.NASA/ESA/K. Retherford/SWRI) Jupiter's moon Europa — a giant ice ball thought to hide twice as much liquid water as there is on Earth —
just became an even hotter target in the search for aliens. Scientists on Monday unveiled new photographs from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and they likely show "fingers"
of water vapor squirting out of Europa's hidden ocean and into space.

(Suspected plumes of water vapor spouting out of Jupiter's moon Europa.Hubble/NASA/STScI/Business Insider) Those blotchy "dark fingers," circled in red, are the suspected plumes.

During a press teleconference on Monday, William Sparks, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute, said
"we are really working at the limits of Hubble's unique capabilities." "Trying to just image Europa with the Hubble Space Telescope clearly from Earth is challenging," Pappalardo said.
"Trying to image the [silhouette] of a plume, via the light of Jupiter, is a remarkably hard feat.
There's essentially a lot of noise in the system." NASA's press materials lean heavily on the word "if" as well (our emphasis added): "These plumes, if they do indeed exist, may provide another way to sample Europa's subsurface,"
Geoff Yoder, the associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, said in the space agency's release. Another "if" regarded the moon's water-enriched atmosphere: "If there is a thin atmosphere around Europa,
it has the potential to block some of the light of Jupiter, and we could see it as a silhouette," Sparks said in the release.

The next mission to Europa

(This artist's rendering shows a concept for a future NASA mission to Europa in which a spacecraft would make multiple close flybys of the icy Jovian moon,
thought to contain a global subsurface ocean.NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Animation - Plumes on Europa

Uploaded on Sep 26, 2016 Artist’s concept: Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have imaged what may be water vapor plumes erupting off the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. If the plumes, indeed, emerge and rain down on the surface, it may be much easier to access material that was once in the ocean of Europa. News release: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Europa transit illustration. Europa orbits Jupiter every 3 and a half days, and on every orbit it passes in front of Jupiter,
raising the possibility of plumes being seen as silhouettes absorbing the background light of Jupiter.
Credits: A. Field (STScI)

EUROPA LANDER COULD CARRY A MICROPHONE AND “LISTEN” TO THE ICE TO FIND OUT WHAT’S UNDERNEATH

Artist's rendering of a possible Europa Lander mission, which would explore the surface of the icy moon in the coming decades. Credit:: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image of Europa’s ice shell, taken by the Galileo spacecraft, of fractured “chaos terrain”. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Europa’s “Great Lake.” Scientists speculate many more exist throughout the shallow regions of the moon’s icy shell. Credit: Britney Schmidt/Dead Pixel FX/Univ. of Texas at Austin.

Artist’s concept of chloride salts bubbling up from Europa’s liquid ocean and reaching the frozen surface. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


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Mission to Ganymede, The solar system's largest Moon

Russia's Proposed Mission to Ganymede in russian! Ганимед: на пороге открытий

Published on Jul 29, 2016 В НПО имени Лавочкина, где создавались все отечественные межпланетные станции, а сейчас строятся аппараты
лунной программы и орбитальные обсерватории серии «Спектр», прорабатывается проект «Лаплас». Это два аппарата,
которые в ближайшее десятилетие планируют отправить к Юпитеру. Цель исследований - спутник Юпитера – Ганимед.
Еще один объект изучения – Меркурий. Планета входит в т.н. «земную группу планет», но знания землян о нем – самые общие.
Этот пробел должна восполнить миссия «БепиКоломбо». В проекте принимают участие ЕКА, Роскосмос и JAXA.
На аппарате, который отправится к самой маленькой планете Солнечной системы через два года, будет установлен
российский прибор для поиска воды. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

GAMYMEDE INFO GRAPHIC

Russia says it’s going to send a lander to the solar system’s largest moon

Screen capture of video showing a Russian spacecraft approaching the Jovian moon Ganymede.

Just In Time for Halloween:(2014) Jupiter Gets a Giant Cyclops Eye!

Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Ganymede?s Shadow.(Ganymede the largest moon in the solar system) Image Credit: NASA/ESA/A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center)
Halloween is just around the corner. And in what appears to be an act of cosmic convergence, Hubble captured a spooky image of Jupiter
staring back at us with a cyclops eye!
While this is merely a convenient illusion caused by the passage of Ganymede in front of Jupiter ?
something it does on a regular basis ? the timing and appearance are perfect.

Ganymede?s Subsurface Ocean is Like a Club Sandwich by Nancy Atkinson on May 1, 2014 Read more: www.universetoday...

This image of Ganymede, one of Jupiter's moons and the largest moon in our solar system was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Image Credit: NASA

This image of Ganymede, one of Jupiter's moons and the largest moon in our solar system was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Image Credit: NASA

Many people think that the answer to ‘what is the largest moon in the Solar System’ is our Moon.
It is not. Our Moon is the fifth largest natural satellite. Ganymede, a moon of Jupiter, is the largest in this solar system.
At 5,268 km at the equator Image Credit: NASA

Montage showing New Horizons’ views of Ganymede taken by it’s infrared spectrometer and LORRI and LEISA instruments.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University APL/SwRI

And the FUTURE????

Artist’s concept for a future settlement on Ganymede. Credit: futuretimeline.net

Artist’s concept of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), a cancelled program
that envisioned sending a spacecraft to inspect Callisto,
Ganymede and Europa. Credit: NASA/JPL


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Jupiter's Moon Callisto

Jupiter's Moon: Callisto Rotation

Uploaded on Jan 6, 2010 Callisto (pronounced /kəˈlɪstoʊ/,or as Greek Καλλιστώ) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei.
It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System and the second largest in the Jovian system, after Ganymede.
Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance,
with an orbital radius of about 1 880 000 km. It does not form part of the orbital resonance that affects three inner Galilean satellites—Io, Europa and Ganymede—
and thus does not experience appreciable tidal heating. Callisto rotates synchronously with its orbital period, so the same face is always turned toward Jupiter.
Callisto's surface is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because it orbits farther away.
Callisto is composed of approximately equal amounts of rock and ices, with a mean density of about 1.83 g/cm3. Compounds detected
spectrally on the surface include water ice, carbon dioxide, silicates, and organic compounds. Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft
revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km.
The surface of Callisto is heavily cratered and extremely old. It does not show any signatures of subsurface processes such as plate tectonics,
earthquakes or volcanoes, and is thought to have evolved predominantly under the influence of impacts. Prominent surface features include multi-ring structures,
variously shaped impact craters, and chains of craters (catenae) and associated scarps, ridges and deposits. At a small scale, the surface is varied and consists of small,
bright frost deposits at the tops of elevations, surrounded by a low-lying, smooth blanket of dark material. This is thought to result from the sublimation-driven degradation
of small landforms, which is supported by the general deficit of small impact craters and the presence of numerous small knobs, considered to be their remnants.The absolute ages
of the landforms are not known. Callisto is surrounded by an extremely thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide[6] and probably molecular oxygen, as well as by a rather intense ionosphere. Callisto is thought
to have formed by slow accretion from the disk of the gas and dust that surrounded Jupiter after its formation. Its slowness and the lack of tidal heating prevented rapid differentiation.
The slow convection in the interior of Callisto, which commenced soon after formation, led to partial differentiation and possibly to the formation of a subsurface ocean at a depth of 100150 km and a small, rocky core.
The likely presence of an ocean within Callisto indicates that it can or could harbor life. However, this is less likely than on nearby Europa. Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied the moon.
Callisto has long been considered the most suitable place for a human base for future exploration of the system of Jupiter. Discovered by G. Galilei S. Marius Discovery date January 7, 1610 Designations Alternate name Jupiter IV Adjective Callistoan, Callistian Orbital characteristics Periapsis 1 869 000 km[b] Apoapsis 1 897 000 km[a] Mean orbit radius 1 882 700 km Eccentricity 0.007 4 Orbital period 16.689 018 4 d Average orbital speed 8.204 km/s Inclination 0.192° (to local Laplace planes) Satellite of Jupiter Physical characteristics Mean radius 2410.3 ± 1.5 km (0.378 Earths) Surface area 7.30 × 107 km2 (0.143 Earths) Volume 5.9 × 1010 km3 (0.0541 Earths) Mass 1.075 938 ± 0.000 137 × 1023 kg (0.018 Earths) Mean density 1.834 4 ± 0.003 4 g/cm3[3] Equatorial surface gravity 1.235 m/s2 (0.126 g) Escape velocity 2.440 km/s Rotation period synchronous Axial tilt zero Albedo 0.22 (geometric) Surface temp. K[4] min mean max 80 ± 5 134 ± 11 165 ± 5 Apparent magnitude 5.65 (opposition) Atmosphere Surface pressure 7.5 pbar Composition ~4 × 108 cm−3 carbon dioxide up to 2 × 1010 cm−3 molecular oxygen Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Model of Callisto’s internal structure showing a surface ice layer, a possible liquid water layer, and an ice–rock interior.
Credit: NASA/JPL

"

Interior density structures created by an outer solar system late heavy bombardment onto Ganymede (top row) and Callisto (bottom row).
Credit: SwRI

Voyager 1 image of Valhalla, a multi-ring impact structure 3800 km in diameter. Credit: NASA/JPL

New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) captured these two images of Jupiter’s outermost large moon, Callisto,
during its flyby in February 2007. Credit: NASA/JPL

The Future????

Artist’s impression of a base on the icy surface of Callisto. Credit: NASA


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