Mission to Jupiter


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Introduction to J U P I T E R!!

View of the Sun from Jupiter


Status of the Deep Space Network

Speculation

Outward Bound: Colonizing Jupiter

Jupiter and its moon are a rarely considered prospect for colonization, but potentially the ripest opportunity for it in the solar system. In this episode of the Outward Bound series we will examine the options for colonizing each of Jupiter's primary moons and even discuss ways to colonize the giant planet itself. Listen or Download the audio of this episode from Soundcloud: Cover Art by Jakub Grygier: : Visit the sub-reddit Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

Jupiter Info Graphics


Observing Jupiter in the Radio Range


Image: Winds around Jupiter’s Great Red Spot are simulated in this JunoCam view that has been animated using a model of the winds there. The wind model, called a velocity field, was derived from data collected by NASA’s Voyager spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes. NASA’s Juno spacecraft acquired the original, static view during passage over the spot on July 10, 2017. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/Justin Cowart. If you’d like to dig into the analysis of radiation data, the paper is Kollman et al., “A heavy ion and proton radiation belt inside of Jupiter’s rings,” Geophys. Res. Lett 44, 5259-5268 (abstract).


Jupiter rotates!



New Horizons' long-range camera LORRI monitored Jupiter's rotation as the spacecraft approached on January 9 and 10, 2007.
The 11 images in this animation were each taken an hour apart and cover one full rotation of the planet.
During the animation, first Ganymede and then Io cross the field of view, casting their shadows onto the planet.
There are a total of six of these movies planned for New Horizons' approach to Jupiter; the last of those should have been taken on Sunday,
so stay tuned to the New Horizons site for those. There are only three other sets of images planned for the next month: a handful of "Kodak moments,"
images taken primarily for their prettiness.
NASA / JHUAPL / SwRI / Animation by E. Lakdawalla

A Journey to Jupiter

Published on Feb 8, 2017 This animation of Jupiter is made from more than 1,000 images taken by 91 amateurs from around the world between the 19th of December 2014 and the 31st of March 2015. After collecting the images, they have been remaped into cylindrical projections by Christoffer Svenske and Johan Warell. I have then color corrected, stacked and seamlessly stitched them into a total of 54 complete maps. To slow down the rapid motion, I have interpolated an image in between each pair of maps for a total of 107. The polar projections are a little special as I have made them stretch from pole to pole, not just from pole (center) to equator (outside) as traditionally represented. The reason is that I find it more interesting to be able to follow the movements of all the cloudbelts regardless of the projection. It has taken more than a year to complete this video that shows the motion of Jupiter's cloud belts and the rotation of the Great Red Spot in high resolution, all accelerated one million times! It also shows the technical skills of the world wide community of amateur planetary photographers to be able to reach this high level of details that can be tracked across the planet during 250 revolutions. Thanks to all of you for contributing to this project.

The Voyager 3 project from Sweden


Voyager 3 from Peter Rosén on Vimeo.

In 1979, the Voyager 1 probe took a stunning series of images on its final approach to Jupiter that clearly showed the intricate movement of the cloudbelts for the first time. 35 years later, almost to the day, a group of 7 swedish amateur astronomers set out to replicate this odyssey and the historical NASA-footage but with images taken with their own ground-based telescopes. Welcome to the Voyager 3 Project.

Jupiter’s Magnetosphere Will Blow Your Mind While it Kills Your Spacecraft

Image: This graphic shows a new radiation zone surrounding Jupiter, located just above the atmosphere near the equator, that has been discovered by NASA’s Juno mission. The new radiation zone is depicted here as a glowing blue area around the planet’s middle. Meanwhile, Juno’s microwave radiometer (MWR) instrument also culled data during Juno’s passage over the Great Red Spot in July of 2017. The figure below represents six channels of these data. Using the MWR, Juno can see deeper than any previous ground- or space-based observations into the clouds. It’s interesting to note that the large-scale structure of the Great Red Spot is evident as deep into the planet as the MWR can observe. 16,000 kilometers wide, the Great Red Spot is a vast crimson storm that has been monitored since 1830. It was twice Earth’s diameter when the Voyagers studied it but has since diminished in width.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/JHUAPL.

Image: This figure shows data from the six channels of the microwave radiometer (MWR) instrument onboard NASA’s Juno spacecraft. The data were collected in the mission’s sixth science orbit (referred to as “perijove 7”), during which the spacecraft passed over Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. The top layer in the figure is a visible light image from the mission’s JunoCam instrument, provided for context. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI.

The magnetic field of Jupiter and co-rotation enforcing currents. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Ruslik0

The Juno spacecraft will provide insights on how Jupiter's magnetic field is generated.
Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Jupiter's magnetosphere - a basic view. Read more: This video is public domain and may be downloaded at: Credits: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio/JPL NAIF Tom Bridgman (GST): Lead Animator Mara Johnson-Groh (Wyle Information Systems): Writer Laurence Schuler (ADNET Systems, Inc.): Project Support Ian Jones (ADNET Systems, Inc.): Project Support

Exploring Jupiter's Magnetic Field

Published on Jun 29, 2016 NASA is sending the Juno spacecraft to Jupiter, to peer beneath its cloudy surface
and explore the giant planet's structure and magnetic field. Juno's twin magnetometers,
built at Goddard Space Flight Center, will give scientists their first look within Jupiter
at the powerful dynamo that drives its magnetic field. In this interview, Deputy Principal Investigator
Jack Connerney discusses the Juno mission and its magnetometers.
This video is public domain and :can be downloaded from the Scientific Visualization Studio at Credit: NASA/Goddard/Daniel Gallagher Music from the Killer Tracks catalog: "Beep" – Niklas Ahman "Jupiter's Eye" – Christian Telford, David Travis Edwards, Matthew St Laurent, and Robert Anthony Navarro "Original Conquest" –Laurent Dury "Through the Mist" – Andrew Britton and David Goldsmith "Lost Roads" – Gregg Lehrman

Swirly Southern Picture Of Jupiter Makes Us Want To Visit Right Now

A view the Cassini spacecraft took during its flyby of Jupiter?s southern pole in 2000. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Gimme a rocketship ? we want to see what those bands are made of! This is a strange view of Jupiter,
a familiar gas giant that humanity has sent several spacecraft to. This particular view, taken in 2000
and highlighted on the European Space Agency website recently, shows the southern hemisphere of the mighty planet.


The main page for Galelio Countdown(Legacy Page)


Amateur astronomers regularly analyse their own observations and many participate in studies of the atmosphere of Jupiter.
This image shows a nearly full map of Jupiter compiled by the Italian amateur astronomer,
Marco Vedovato, from observations obtained by Tiziano Olivetti in Thailand, Christopher Go in the Philippines,
and Alexei Pace in Malta. Full maps like this are only possible through the collaboration from observers around the world.
The composition of these images by other amateurs like Marco Vedovato helps scientists in their effort to characterise the
dynamic atmosphere of Jupiter. Image credit: M. Vedovato/T. Olivetti/C. Go/A. Pace.

Jupiter’s structure and composition. (Image Credit: Kelvinsong CC by S.A. 3.0)

Jupiter's Moons Infographic

A “family portrait” of the four Galilean satellites (Io Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) around Jupiter,
taken by the New Horizons spacecraft and released in 2007.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

NASA | Jupiter in 4k Ultra HD

Published on Oct 13, 2015 New imagery from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope is revealing details never before seen on Jupiter.
High-resolution maps and spinning globes (rendered in the 4k Ultra HD format) are the first products
to come from a program to study the solar system’s outer planets each year using Hubble.
The observations are designed to capture a broad range of features, including winds, clouds,
storms and atmospheric chemistry. These annual studies will help current and future scientists
see how such giant worlds change over time. "This video is in the public domain. It can be downloaded along with the new Jupiter globes and maps Learn more at: http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/god... Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/iTunes/f... Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NASA.GSFC Or find us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Jupiter: May Be “Hairy” with Dark Matter

The root of a dark matter hair produced from particles going through Jupiter’s core would be about 1 trillion times denser than average.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


TAKE A LOOK BENEATH JUPITER’S CLOUDS

This radio image of Jupiter was captured by the VLA in New Mexico. The three colors in the picture correspond
to three different radio wavelengths: 2 cm in blue, 3 cm in gold, and 6 cm in red. Synchrotron radiation produces the pink glow around the planet.
Image: Imke de Pater, Michael H. Wong (UC Berkeley), Robert J. Sault (Univ. Melbourne).


Space News - Jupiter Radio Map

Radio map of Jupiter reveals what's beneath clouds

Two images of the Great Red Spot. The lower one is a Hubble optical image, showing the Spot and the familiar swirling cloud patterns.
The upper image is a radio map of the same region, showing the movement of ammonia up to 90 km below the clouds.
Credit: Radio image by Michael H. Wong, Imke de Pater (UC Berkeley), Robert J. Sault (Univ. Melbourne).
(Optical image by NASA, ESA, A.A. Simon (GSFC), M.H. Wong (UC Berkeley), and G.S. Orton (JPL-Caltech) )


OUMUAMUA WAS JUST THE BEGINNING. ASTRONOMERS FIND AN INTERSTELLAR ASTEROID ORBITING RETROGRADE NEAR JUPITER.


Image: Images of 2015 BZ509 obtained at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO) that established its retrograde co-orbital nature. The bright stars and the asteroid (circled in yellow) appear black and the sky white in this negative image. Credit: C. Veillet / Large Binocular Telescope Observatory. Namouni and Morais used computer simulations to track the errant asteroid back in time, arguing that 2015 BZ509 has moved this way since the birth of the Solar System some 4.5 billion years ago, an indication that it could not have formed there originally. The case also relies on the fact that the Sun formed in a tightly packed star cluster where movement of objects ejected by gravitational forces within their own system into orbits around other stars would not have been uncommon. Thus this rogue asteroid may well contain information about planet formation and evolution as well as telling us more about the Sun’s original siblings. So what exactly do we know about this object? 2015 BZ509 is in a resonant, co-orbital motion with Jupiter and represents the first discovery of a retrograde co-orbital asteroid with Jupiter or any other planet. Its orbital eccentricity of 0.3805 takes it inside and then outside of Jupiter’s orbit at its closest approaches (176 million kilometers). The orbital period is 11.65 years and the inclination is 163 degrees, an evidently stable orbit if a complicated one.


TWELVE NEW MOONS DISCOVERED AROUND JUPITER, AND ONE OF THEM IS PRETTY ODD!

Illustration of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites. Credit: NASA

Artist’s impression of Jupiter’s moons, with the newly-discovered moons indicated in blue and red. Credit: Carnegie Institution of Science/Roberto Molar Candanosa

Sheppard Jupiter Moons Movie


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Mission To Jupiter

Google's Doodle celebrating Juno's arrival July 4, 2016

NASA's Juno mission page




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Jupiter's Moon IO

Life on IO?????

More Frank R. Paul art this time showing the inhabitants of one of Jupiter's moons. This time it's weird penguin/chicken people.

IO AFIRE WITH VOLCANOES UNDER JUNO’S GAZE

An amazingly active Io, Jupiter’s “pizza moon” shows multiple volcanoes and hot spots in this photo taken with Juno’s infrared camera. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / SwRI / ASI / INAF /JIRAM / Roman Tkachenko

Linda Morabito spotted the puzzling plume off Io’s limb in this photo, taken on March 8, 1979, three days after Voyager 1’s encounter with Jupiter. It really does look like another moon poking out from behind Io. A second plume over the terminator (border between day and night) catches the rays of the rising Sun. Credit: NASA / JPL

This map shows thermal emission from erupting volcanoes on Io. The larger the spot, the larger the thermal emission. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Bear Fight Institute

This five-frame sequence (Repeating Sequence on this video) of New Horizons images captures the giant plume from Io's Tvashtar volcano. Snapped by the probe's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter earlier this year, this first-ever "movie" of an Io plume clearly shows motion in the cloud of volcanic debris, which extends 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the moon's surface. Only the upper part of the plume is visible from this vantage point -- the plume's source is 130 kilometers (80 miles) below the edge of Io's disk, on the far side of the moon. The appearance and motion of the plume is remarkably similar to an ornamental fountain on Earth, replicated on a gigantic scale. The knots and filaments that allow us to track the plume's motion are still mysterious, but this movie is likely to help scientists understand their origin, as well as provide unique information on the plume dynamics. Io's hyperactive nature is emphasized by the fact that two other volcanic plumes are also visible off the edge of Io's disk: Masubi at the 7 o'clock position, and a very faint plume, possibly from the volcano Zal, at the 10 o'clock position. Jupiter illuminates the night side of Io, and the most prominent feature visible on the disk is the dark horseshoe shape of the volcano Loki, likely an enormous lava lake. Boosaule Mons, which at 18 kilometers (11 miles) is the highest mountain on Io and one of the highest mountains in the solar system, pokes above the edge of the disk on the right side. The five images were obtained over an 8-minute span, with two minutes between frames, from 23.50 to 23.58 Universal Time on March 1, 2007. Io was 3.8 million kilometers (2.4 million miles) from New Horizons; the image is centered at Io coordinates 0 degrees north, 342 degrees west. The pictures were part of a sequence designed to look at Jupiter's rings, but planners included Io in the sequence because the moon was passing behind Jupiter's rings at the time.

Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon Io by Matt Williams on October 21, 2015


Global view of Jupiter’s moon Io, obtained during the tenth orbit of Jupiter by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft. Credit: NASA

Enhanced-color Galileo image showing a dark spot produced by a major eruption at Pillan Patera in 1997. Credit: NASA/JPL

False-color mosaic of the surface of Io. Large mountains appear in dark grey and black. Credit: USGS Astrogeology Science Center

Model of the possible interior composition of Io with various features labelled. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Kelvinsong

Io's Volcanoes are in the Wrong Place



This five-frame sequence of images from NASA?s New Horizons mission captures the giant plume
from Io?s Tvashtar volcano in March, 2007.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute.
Jupiter?s moon Io features at least 400 active volcanoes, making it the most volcanically active world in our Solar System.
However, the location of the volcanoes on Io just doesn?t match up with scientific models that predict how the moon?s interior is heated.
?Rigorous statistical analysis of the distribution of volcanoes in the new global geologic map of Io,?
said Christopher Hamilton of the University of Maryland, College Park and the Goddard Spaceflight Center.
?We found a systematic eastward offset between observed and predicted volcano locations that can?t be reconciled
with any existing solid body tidal heating models.?

LTvashtar Paterae


Uploaded on Apr 30, 2011 A plume erupts from the Io's Tvashtar volcanic area as the moon transits Jupiter. Io's own shadow is visible as a dark disk on the Jupiter's cloud tops. Filaments (from an as yet unexplained mechanism) are visible in the plume. The appearance of Tvashtar's plume was based on this composite of images from the New Horizons spacecraft: Rendered in real time using the VESTA engine. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Electrical "Volcanoes" of Jupiter's Moon Io | Space News


Published on Apr 25, 2013 The so-called "volcanoes" on Jupiter's moon Io have long been conventionally interpreted as the effect of tidal forces acting on the moon.
But a recent scientific paper has announced that this longstanding explanation does not fit with the actual location of the plumes.
Is it possible that this failure of theory could cause planetary scientists to reconsider the electrical explanation first offered by
astrophysicist Thomas Gold and later by plasma scientists Anthony Peratt and Alex Dessler?
Subscribe to Thunderbolts Update weekly newsletter: http://eepurl.com/ETy41 Thunderbolts Project Home: http://www.thunderbolts.info Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thunderboltsp... Picture of the Day: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/daily... Electric Universe (Wal Thornhill): http://www.holoscience.com/wp/ Essential Guide to the Electric Universe: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-co... Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Pictures of Io’s auroral activity, captured by the Galileo spacecraft on October 16, 1998. Credit: NASA/JPL/University Of Arizona (PIRL)

Mosaic of Voyager 1 images of Io’s south polar region, which includes two of Io’s ten highest peaks –
Euboea Montes (upper right) and Haemus Mons (left). Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS

Time-lapse sequence of clear-filter images of Io during the eclipse of January 1, 2001.
Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS

Lava Lake Loki on Jupiter's moon Io, up close
Date: May 1, 2015
Source:University of Arizona



The LBT image of Loki Patera (orange) laid over a Voyager image of the volcanic depression.
The emission (in orange color) appears spread out in the north-south direction due to the telescope point-spread function;
it is mainly localized to the southern corners of the lake.
Credit: LBTO- NASA

The Interior of IO


Of Jupiter?s four large Galilean satellites, Io is the closest to the planet.
It?s about the same size as Europa and the Earth?s Moon. It may be the strangest satellite humans have ever studied.
Voyager photos of Io revealed erupting volcanoes. This wasn?t too surprising, because Jupiter?s intense tidal forces heat
the interior of the satellite, just like on Europa. But subsequent observations show that volcanoes are always erupting
on Io - in fact, it?s the most volcanically active world in the solar system! Material shot up by the many volcanoes
rises high above the surface of the little satellite and then falls back in a lazy arc due to Io?s weak gravity.
Volcanic activity adds about 10 centimeters of new material to the surface each year.

Animation of IO's transit of Jupiter


A Dec. 24, 2014 (EST) timelapse of Io transiting Jupiter. Credit: IKYLSP/Reddit
On Christmas Eve, as millions upon millions of people focused on wrapping gifts and getting ready for the holidays,
an amateur astronomer gave a small gift to the world. The person turned a telescope and camera to Jupiter and caught volcanic
Io going across the face of the gas giant. This happened just a few days after professional astronomers caught a rare eclipse
involving that very same moon.

Jupiter's Moon: Io Rotation - HD Kurdistan Planetarium Kurdistan Planetarium


Published on Apr 26, 2012 Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, the fourth-largest moon in the Solar System.
It was named after Io, a priestess of Hera who became one of the lovers of Zeus. Nevertheless, it was simply referred to as Jupiter I, or
The first satellite of Jupiter, until mid-20th century. With over 400 active volcanoes, Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System. Its surface is dotted with more than 100 mountains,
some which are taller than Earth's Mount Everest. Unlike most satellites in the outer Solar System (which have a thick coating of ice),
Io is primarily composed of silicate rock surrounding a molten iron or iron sulfide core. Although not proven, recent data from the Galileo orbiter indicates that Io might have its own magnetic field Io has an extremely
thin atmosphere made up mostly of sulfur dioxide (SO2). If a surface data or collection vessel were to land on Io in the future,
it would have to be extremely tough (similar to the tank-like bodies of the Soviet Venera landers) to survive the radiation and magnetic fields
that originate from Discovered by Galileo Galilei Discovery date January 7, 1610 Designations Alternate name Jupiter I Adjective Ionian Orbital characteristics Periapsis 420,000 km (0.002 807 AU) Apoapsis 423,400 km (0.002 830 AU) Mean orbit radius 421,700 km (0.002 819 AU) Eccentricity 0.0041 Orbital period 1.769 137 786 d (42 h) Average orbital speed 17.334 km/s Inclination 2.21° (to the ecliptic) 0.05° (to Jupiter's equator) Satellite of Jupiter Physical characteristics Dimensions 3,660.0 × 3,637.4 × 3,630.6 km Mean radius 1,821.3 km (0.286 Earths)[1] Surface area 41,910,000 km2 (0.082 Earths) Volume 2.53 × 1010 km3 (0.023 Earths) Mass 8.9319 × 1022 kg (0.015 Earths) Mean density 3.528 g/cm3 Equatorial surface gravity 1.796 m/s2 (0.183 g) Escape velocity 2.558 km/s Rotation period synchronous Equatorial rotation velocity 271 km/h Albedo 0.63 ± 0.02 Surface temp. Surface min mean max 130 K 200 K Apparent magnitude 5.02 (opposition) Atmosphere Surface pressure trace Composition 90% sulfur dioxide Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Electrical "Volcanoes" of Jupiter's Moon Io | Space News

Published on Apr 25, 2013 The so-called "volcanoes" on Jupiter's moon Io have long been conventionally interpreted
as the effect of tidal forces acting on the moon. But a recent scientific paper has announced
that this longstanding explanation does not fit with the actual location of the plumes.
Is it possible that this failure of theory could cause planetary scientists to reconsider
the electrical explanation first offered by astrophysicist Thomas Gold and later by plasma scientists Anthony Peratt and Alex Dessler?
Subscribe to Thunderbolts Update weekly newsletter: http://eepurl.com/ETy41 Thunderbolts Project Home: http://www.thunderbolts.info Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thunderboltsp... Picture of the Day: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/daily... Electric Universe (Wal Thornhill): http://www.holoscience.com/wp/ Essential Guide to the Electric Universe: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-co... Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

NASA’S JUNO MISSION SPOTS ANOTHER POSSIBLE VOLCANO ON JUPITER’S MOON IO

Infrared image of the southern hemisphere of Jupiter’s moon Io taken by NASA's Juno spacecraft on Dec. 16, 2017. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/ASI/INAF/JIRAM

Annotated image of the new heat source close to the south pole of Io, with a scale depicting the range of temperatures displayed in the infrared image. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/ASI/INAF/JIRAM

Juno Saw One of Io’s Volcanoes Erupting During its Recent Flyby

Thanks to a mission extension, NASA’s Juno probe continues to orbit Jupiter, being only the second spacecraft in history to do so. Since it arrived around the gas giant on July 5th, 2016, Juno has managed to gather a great deal of information on Jupiter’s atmosphere, magnetic and gravity environment, and its interior structure.

Reconstructed image acquired by the JunoCam at 12:20 (UTC) on Dec. 21, 2018. Credit: NASA/SwRI/MSSS

Image captured by Juno’s Stellar Reference Unit (SRU) camera shortly after Io was eclipsed by Jupiter at 12:40:29 (UTC) Dec. 21, 2018. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI

Image acquired by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) at 12:30 (UTC) on Dec. 21st, 2018. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/INAF

Io’s Largest Volcano, Loki, Erupts Every 500 Days. Any Day Now, It’ll Erupt Again.

Jupiter’s moon Io is in stark contrast to the other three Galilean moons. While Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa all appear to have subsurface oceans, Io is a volcanic world, covered with more than 400 active volcanoes. In fact, Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System.

Voyager 1 image mosaic of Loki and the surrounding surface of Io, including lava flows and volcanic pits. Numerous volcanic calderas and lava flows are visible here. Loki Patera, an active lava lake, is the large shield-shaped black feature. Image Credit: By NASA/JPL/USGS – Public Domain,

One of many volcanic eruptions that happen regularly on Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Io is heated by tidal interactions with Jupiter, which squeeze the moon and heat it up. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Io’s surface is marked with volcanic features and mountains. This Voyager 1 mosaic covers Io’s south polar region. At the bottom of the image is Haemus Mons, 1 10 km. high mountain. The rest of the image is typical of Io, with flat volcanic plains, eroded volcanic plateaus, and cratered volcanic calderas. Image Credit: By NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory / USGS – Public Domain,

The brightness of Loki as a function of time from various sources, including the Keck and Gemini Telescopes. The upper panel shows the total available time history while the bottom is only the past 5 years. The square wave in the background is the original 540-day period. The vertical line in 2018 is mid-May 2018, indicating our prediction for when the last eruption would began. Image Credit: Rathbun et. al., 2019.

The surface of Io is covered with dark, collapsed volcanoes. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS

IO’S LOKI VOLCANO: AN EXPLAINATION OF ITS TRICKY BEHAVIOR AND PREDICTION FOR THE NEXT ERUPTION. J. A. Rathbun1 and J. R. Spencer2 , 1 Planetary Science Institute (1700 E. Fort Lowell Rd., Tucson, AZ 85719, rathbun@psi.edu), 2 Southwest Research Institute (1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302).

50th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2019 (LPI Contrib. No. 2132) (PDF)


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Mission to Ganymede, The solar system's largest Moon

GAMYMEDE INFO GRAPHIC

A Huge Ring-Like Structure on Ganymede Might be the Result of an Enormous Impact

Side by side images of Ganymede’s surface from Voyager 2 (left) and Galileo (right). The image shows the dark and light terrain types that cover the moon, and the concurrent furrows present in these Dark Terrains. Image Credit: NASA.

Above: Azimuthal equidistant map centered at 20° south 180° west showing Ganymede’s Dark Terrain and furrows (indicated by yellow lines). Below: Azimuthal equidistant map of Ganymede’s surface centered at 20° north and 0° west. This shows the opposite hemisphere of Ganymede to the top image. The white areas indicate Bright Terrain. (Image credit: NASA)

One of the big questions related to this discovery concerns Ganymede’s interior structure, and its evolution.

Three frame grabs from the computer simulation. The numbers in each frame are the seconds after impact. In the third frame, there is a sharp distribution of material at 0 km which the researchers say is a numerical artifact of the simulation, and not real. Image Credit: Hirata et al, 2020.

Exploring The Icy Moons of Jupiter. NASA's Europa Clipper and ESA's JUICE

Mars is the place that most of our spacecraft, landers and rovers are studying, searching for any evidence that life ever existed somewhere else in the Solar System. But talk to planetary scientists, and they’re just as excited about the ocean worlds of the Solar System; the moons, asteroids, dwarf planets and Kuiper Belt objects where there could be vast oceans of liquid water under thick shells of ice. The perfect environment for life to thrive. We’ve only had tantalizing hints that these oceans are there, but NASA is building a spacecraft that will study one of these worlds in detail: the Europa Clipper. And they’re not the only ones. The European Space Agency is building their own mission, the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer. Our Book is out! Audio Podcast version: ITunes: https://www.universetoday.com/audio​">RSS: : What Fraser's Watching Playlist Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 References: Evidence for an Ocean The Gallleo mission NASA Mission Named 'Europa Clipper'NASA Mission Named 'Europa Clipper' Europa Mission Science Instruments Europa or Enceladus? If NASA switches from SLS to Falcon Heavy, it won’t have to choose Old Data Reveal New Evidence of Europa Plumes Without a champion, Europa lander falls to NASA’s back burner NASA’S EUROPA LANDER MAY BE IN JEOPARDY AFTER THE MIDTERMS — AND SOME ARE FINE WITH SEEING IT GO 50-foot ice spikes may dot Europa's surface JUICE ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT (YELLOW BOOK) Juice SCIENCE OBJECTIVES Ganymede IN DEPTH BY THE NUMBERS ARIANESPACE AND ESA ANNOUNCE JUPITER ICY MOONS EXPLORER LAUNCH CONTRACT

Russia's Proposed Mission to Ganymede in russian! Ганимед: на пороге открытий

Published on Jul 29, 2016 В НПО имени Лавочкина, где создавались все отечественные межпланетные станции, а сейчас строятся аппараты
лунной программы и орбитальные обсерватории серии «Спектр», прорабатывается проект «Лаплас». Это два аппарата,
которые в ближайшее десятилетие планируют отправить к Юпитеру. Цель исследований - спутник Юпитера – Ганимед.
Еще один объект изучения – Меркурий. Планета входит в т.н. «земную группу планет», но знания землян о нем – самые общие.
Этот пробел должна восполнить миссия «БепиКоломбо». В проекте принимают участие ЕКА, Роскосмос и JAXA.
На аппарате, который отправится к самой маленькой планете Солнечной системы через два года, будет установлен
российский прибор для поиска воды. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

GAMYMEDE's Magnetic field INFO GRAPHIC

Russia says it’s going to send a lander to the solar system’s largest moon

Screen capture of video showing a Russian spacecraft approaching the Jovian moon Ganymede.

Just In Time for Halloween:(2014) Jupiter Gets a Giant Cyclops Eye!

Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Ganymede?s Shadow.(Ganymede the largest moon in the solar system) Image Credit: NASA/ESA/A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center)
Halloween is just around the corner. And in what appears to be an act of cosmic convergence, Hubble captured a spooky image of Jupiter
staring back at us with a cyclops eye!
While this is merely a convenient illusion caused by the passage of Ganymede in front of Jupiter ?
something it does on a regular basis ? the timing and appearance are perfect.

Ganymede?s Subsurface Ocean is Like a Club Sandwich by Nancy Atkinson on May 1, 2014 Read more: www.universetoday...

This image of Ganymede, one of Jupiter's moons and the largest moon in our solar system was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Image Credit: NASA

This image of Ganymede, one of Jupiter's moons and the largest moon in our solar system was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Image Credit: NASA

Many people think that the answer to ‘what is the largest moon in the Solar System’ is our Moon.
It is not. Our Moon is the fifth largest natural satellite. Ganymede, a moon of Jupiter, is the largest in this solar system.
At 5,268 km at the equator Image Credit: NASA

Montage showing New Horizons’ views of Ganymede taken by it’s infrared spectrometer and LORRI and LEISA instruments.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University APL/SwRI

And the FUTURE????

Artist’s concept for a future settlement on Ganymede. Credit: futuretimeline.net

Artist’s concept of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), a cancelled program
that envisioned sending a spacecraft to inspect Callisto,
Ganymede and Europa. Credit: NASA/JPL

Articles

Articles from Universe today.com

Even Ganymede is Showing Tectonic Activity. We’re Going to Need Another Icy Moon Orbiter

A Huge Ring-Like Structure on Ganymede Might be the Result of an Enormous Impact


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Jupiter's Moon Callisto

Speculation

Colonizing Callisto - Third Largest Moon In The Solar System

Callisto is a pretty big moon that has some conditions which are very friendly for a human colony. Because of that in this video, I take a look at how we could go about establishing a big colony on this moon of Jupiter and how we could even turn its surface conditions to be even better for humans in the really far future. Twitter: Intro, outro, and other clips in the video were made with Space Engine. Music used: 1. Kevin MacLeod - Martian Cowboy 2. Space Mercury preview DL-Sounds 3. Kevin MacLeod - Lost Frontier 4. Space Coast - Topher Mohr and Alex Elena 5. At the Foot of the Sphinx - Twin Musicom 6. Kevin MacLeod - Thunder Dreams

Jupiter's Moon: Callisto Rotation

Uploaded on Jan 6, 2010 Callisto (pronounced /kəˈlɪstoʊ/,or as Greek Καλλιστώ) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System and the second largest in the Jovian system, after Ganymede. Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1 880 000 km. It does not form part of the orbital resonance that affects three inner Galilean satellites—Io, Europa and Ganymede— and thus does not experience appreciable tidal heating. Callisto rotates synchronously with its orbital period, so the same face is always turned toward Jupiter. Callisto's surface is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because it orbits farther away. Callisto is composed of approximately equal amounts of rock and ices, with a mean density of about 1.83 g/cm3. Compounds detected spectrally on the surface include water ice, carbon dioxide, silicates, and organic compounds. Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km. The surface of Callisto is heavily cratered and extremely old. It does not show any signatures of subsurface processes such as plate tectonics, earthquakes or volcanoes, and is thought to have evolved predominantly under the influence of impacts. Prominent surface features include multi-ring structures, variously shaped impact craters, and chains of craters (catenae) and associated scarps, ridges and deposits. At a small scale, the surface is varied and consists of small, bright frost deposits at the tops of elevations, surrounded by a low-lying, smooth blanket of dark material. This is thought to result from the sublimation-driven degradation of small landforms, which is supported by the general deficit of small impact craters and the presence of numerous small knobs, considered to be their remnants.The absolute ages of the landforms are not known. Callisto is surrounded by an extremely thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide[6] and probably molecular oxygen, as well as by a rather intense ionosphere. Callisto is thought to have formed by slow accretion from the disk of the gas and dust that surrounded Jupiter after its formation. Its slowness and the lack of tidal heating prevented rapid differentiation. The slow convection in the interior of Callisto, which commenced soon after formation, led to partial differentiation and possibly to the formation of a subsurface ocean at a depth of 100150 km and a small, rocky core. The likely presence of an ocean within Callisto indicates that it can or could harbor life. However, this is less likely than on nearby Europa. Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied the moon. Callisto has long been considered the most suitable place for a human base for future exploration of the system of Jupiter. Discovered by G. Galilei S. Marius Discovery date January 7, 1610 Designations Alternate name Jupiter IV Adjective Callistoan, Callistian Orbital characteristics Periapsis 1 869 000 km[b] Apoapsis 1 897 000 km[a] Mean orbit radius 1 882 700 km Eccentricity 0.007 4 Orbital period 16.689 018 4 d Average orbital speed 8.204 km/s Inclination 0.192° (to local Laplace planes) Satellite of Jupiter Physical characteristics Mean radius 2410.3 ± 1.5 km (0.378 Earths) Surface area 7.30 × 107 km2 (0.143 Earths) Volume 5.9 × 1010 km3 (0.0541 Earths) Mass 1.075 938 ± 0.000 137 × 1023 kg (0.018 Earths) Mean density 1.834 4 ± 0.003 4 g/cm3[3] Equatorial surface gravity 1.235 m/s2 (0.126 g) Escape velocity 2.440 km/s Rotation period synchronous Axial tilt zero Albedo 0.22 (geometric) Surface temp. K[4] min mean max 80 ± 5 134 ± 11 165 ± 5 Apparent magnitude 5.65 (opposition) Atmosphere Surface pressure 7.5 pbar Composition ~4 × 108 cm−3 carbon dioxide up to 2 × 1010 cm−3 molecular oxygen Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Model of Callisto’s internal structure showing a surface ice layer, a possible liquid water layer, and an ice–rock interior.
Credit: NASA/JPL

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Interior density structures created by an outer solar system late heavy bombardment onto Ganymede (top row) and Callisto (bottom row).
Credit: SwRI

Voyager 1 image of Valhalla, a multi-ring impact structure 3800 km in diameter. Credit: NASA/JPL

New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) captured these two images of Jupiter’s outermost large moon, Callisto,
during its flyby in February 2007. Credit: NASA/JPL

The Future????

Artist’s impression of a base on the icy surface of Callisto. Credit: NASA


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Observing Jupiter in the radio range


Nasa's Observing Jupiter in the radio range


Nasa's Radio observing Jupiter page


The Thrush Observatory



Sky & Telescope's Radio observing Page


Information on Sky & Telescope's Radio observing Page


The British Astronomical Association


report on The British Astronomical Association: Radio Jupiter

Jupiter radio observations by Jon Wallace & Richard Flagg


Report on Radio activity from Jupiter


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Articles

Articles from Universe today.com

Even Ganymede is Showing Tectonic Activity. We’re Going to Need Another Icy Moon Orbiter

A Huge Ring-Like Structure on Ganymede Might be the Result of an Enormous Impact

Article: COULD WE TERRAFORM JUPITER?



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