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Jupiter's Moon Europa


EUROPA INFO GRAPHIC

These signals were recorded by the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter on March 5, 1979. Jovian whistler waves propagate at audio frequencies along closed field lines in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Like Earth whistlers, the higher frequency components of the Jovian whistler propagate faster than the lower frequency components, resulting in a descending whistling tone. Also like Earth whistlers, Jovian whistlers are generated by lightning discharges in the atmosphere. It was the detection of these signals that provided the first indirect evidence of lightning on the giant planet. The video shows a spectrogram with time along the horizontal axis, frequency on the vertical axis, and color-coded amplitude with weak signals blue and strong signals red. A moving cursor shows the time of the corresponding audio. For more information on the Voyager project: This is a sample from the collection of Prof Don Gurnett's favorite space audio recordings available from: For similar videos:



EUROPA IS IT INHABITED?

EUROPA LIVING ON INFO GRAPHIC

Europa

A low flyover of Jupiter's moon Europa using recently processed data from NASA's Galileo orbiter. Uses high resolution grayscale and low resolution color images taken between 1996 and 1998. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kevin M. Gill Music: Kevin MacLeod via YouTube.

AIt was Sparks who led the Hubble plume studies in both 2014 and 2016.

Image: These composite images show a suspected plume of material erupting two years apart from the same location on Jupiter’s icy moon Europa. The newly imaged plume, shown at right, rises about 100 kilometers above Europa’s frozen surface. The image was taken Feb. 22, 2016. The plume in the image at left, observed by Hubble on March 17, 2014, originates from the same location. It is estimated to be about 50 kilometers high. The snapshot of Europa, superimposed on the Hubble image, was assembled from data from NASA’s Galileo mission to Jupiter. Credit: NASA/ESA/W. Sparks (STScI)/USGS Astrogeology Science Center.

This composite image shows suspected plumes of water vapor erupting at the 7 o’clock position off the limb of Jupiter’s moon Europa. The Hubble data were taken on January 26, 2014.
Credit: Credits: NASA/ESA/W. Sparks (STScI)/USGS Astrogeology Science Center

Image: These images of the surface of the Jovian moon Europa, taken by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft, focus on a “region of interest” on the icy moon. The image at left traces the location of the erupting plumes of material, observed by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope in 2014 and again in 2016. The plumes are located inside the area surrounded by the green oval. The green oval also corresponds to a warm region on Europa’s surface, as identified by the temperature map at right. The map is based on observations by the Galileo spacecraft. The warmest area is colored bright red. Credit: NASA/ESA/W. Sparks (STScI)/USGS Astrogeology Science Center.

Artist's concept of a cryobot in the ocean of Jupiter's moon Europa. Image credit: NASA.

NASA's Report on a mission to Europa.

NASA's Report on the Their Mission to Europa

Radar Techniques Used in Antarctica Will Scour Europa for Life-Supporting Environments Source: University of Texas AustinPosted June 1, 2015 8:32

EUROPA Plate Tectonics


This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa.
The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color
composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa.
This image was taken in 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera
onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter.

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Europa REMASTERED!!!


NASA?s ?Remastered? View of Europa is the Best Yet by MATT WILLIAMS on NOVEMBER 21, 2014 Europa.
The cracked, icy surface of Europa. The smoothness of the surface has led many scientists to conclude that oceans exist beneath it.
Credit: NASA/JPLredit: NASA

Why NASA looks to Europa to find the building blocks of life

NASA wants to send an expedition to Jupiter's moon, Europa,
to find the ocean it believes lies under the ice -- and the building blocks for life it thinks it will find there.

Screenshot by Michelle Starr/CNET
When it comes to life, biologists have long hypothesised that its origins -- on Earth,
at least -- were in thermal vents on the ocean floor, following a period of spontaneous metabolism before life began.
Thermal vents are rich sites for marine life -- especially in Antarctica where, in the darkness under the ice,
creatures proliferate in the warm, mineral-rich waters streaming from the vents.
It's just one of several theories, but if it's correct, Jupiter's moon Europa could be a very exciting place indeed.
Ever since plumes of vapour were discovered on Jupiter's moon in December last year, NASA has been floating theories about
the oceans that may be sloshing away under the layer of surface ice -- its similarities to theories about the early Earth
look like it may have the ingredients for life.

Europa's Jupiter-Facing Hemisphere

Source Region for Possible Europa Plumes

This reprojection of the official USGS basemap of Jupiter's moon Europa is centered at the estimated source region for potential water vapor plumes that might have been detected using the Hubble Space Telescope. The view is centered at -65 degrees latitude, 183 degrees longitude.

In addition to the plume source region, the image also shows the hemisphere of Europa that might be affected by plume deposits. This map is composed of images from NASA's Galileo and Voyager missions. The black region near the south pole results from gaps in imaging coverage. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute Last Updated: May 29, 2015 Editor: Sarah Loff

NASA Gives ‘GO’ for Mission to Alien Ocean World at Jupiter Moon Europa
by KEN KREMER on JUNE 18, 2015


Artist’s concept of NASA mission streaking over ocean world of Europa. Credit: NASA/JPL

Europa’s heaving ice might make more heat than scientists thought Apr 15, 2016 - See more

JA false color image shows Europa’s surprising surface. The inset includes regions where crustal plates appear to have broken up
and rafted to new positions. NASA/JPL - See more Europa’s heaving ice might make more heat than scientists thought Apr 15, 2016 A new set of experiments sheds light on how much heat is created when ice is deformed,
which could help scientists understand the possibility of a subsurface ocean on one of Jupiter’s moons Europa’s heaving ice might make more heat than scientists thought Apr 15, 2016 A new set of experiments sheds light on how much heat is created when ice is deformed,
which could help scientists understand the possibility of a subsurface ocean on one of Jupiter’s moons.
Jupiter’s moon Europa is under a constant gravitational assault. As it orbits, Europa’s icy surface heaves
and falls with the pull of Jupiter’s gravity, creating enough heat, scientists think,
to support a global ocean beneath the moon’s solid shell.

Hubble’s Surprising Find On Europa To Be Announced By NASA Monday September 26, 2016
Published: 21 Sep , 2016 by Evan Gough

NASA will make a “surprising” announcement about Jupiter’s moon Europa on Monday, Sept. 26th, at 2:00 PM EDT.
They haven’t said much, other than there is “surprising evidence of activity that may be related to the
presence of a subsurface ocean on Europa.” Europa is a prime target for the search for life because of its subsurface ocean.

Images from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft show the intricate detail of Europa’s icy surface.
Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ SETI Institute

What About A Mission To Europa?

Published on Jul 27, 2015 Europa’s water exists in a layer around the planet, encased in a layer of ice. Could there be life down there? Support us at: More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday : Follow us on Tumblr Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer

This artist’s illustration shows what plumes of water vapour might look like being ejected from Europa’s south pole.
Image: NASA, ESA, L. Roth (Southwest Research Institute, USA/University of Cologne, Germany) and M. Kornmesser.

Two models of the interior of Europa. Image: NASA/JPL.

More About Europa: The Search For Life On Europa Could Center On Celestial Party-Crashers A New Image of Europa Emerges Icy Hot: Europa’s Frozen Crust Could Be Warmer Than We Thought

Hubble may have caught jets of water squirting out of a potentially habitable moon Dave Mosher,Business Insider

A plume of subsurface ocean water vapor escapes through a crack in the icy crust of Europa, a moon of Jupiter CREDIR:.NASA/ESA/K. Retherford/SWRI) Jupiter's moon Europa — a giant ice ball thought to hide twice as much liquid water as there is on Earth —
just became an even hotter target in the search for aliens. Scientists on Monday unveiled new photographs from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and they likely show "fingers"
of water vapor squirting out of Europa's hidden ocean and into space.

(Suspected plumes of water vapor spouting out of Jupiter's moon Europa.Hubble/NASA/STScI/Business Insider) Those blotchy "dark fingers," circled in red, are the suspected plumes.

During a press teleconference on Monday, William Sparks, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute, said
"we are really working at the limits of Hubble's unique capabilities." "Trying to just image Europa with the Hubble Space Telescope clearly from Earth is challenging," Pappalardo said.
"Trying to image the [silhouette] of a plume, via the light of Jupiter, is a remarkably hard feat.
There's essentially a lot of noise in the system." NASA's press materials lean heavily on the word "if" as well (our emphasis added): "These plumes, if they do indeed exist, may provide another way to sample Europa's subsurface,"
Geoff Yoder, the associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, said in the space agency's release. Another "if" regarded the moon's water-enriched atmosphere: "If there is a thin atmosphere around Europa,
it has the potential to block some of the light of Jupiter, and we could see it as a silhouette," Sparks said in the release.

The next mission to Europa

(This artist's rendering shows a concept for a future NASA mission to Europa in which a spacecraft would make multiple close flybys of the icy Jovian moon,
thought to contain a global subsurface ocean.NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Animation - Plumes on Europa

Uploaded on Sep 26, 2016 Artist’s concept: Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have imaged what may be water vapor plumes erupting off the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. If the plumes, indeed, emerge and rain down on the surface, it may be much easier to access material that was once in the ocean of Europa. News release: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Europa transit illustration. Europa orbits Jupiter every 3 and a half days, and on every orbit it passes in front of Jupiter,
raising the possibility of plumes being seen as silhouettes absorbing the background light of Jupiter.
Credits: A. Field (STScI)

EUROPA LANDER COULD CARRY A MICROPHONE AND “LISTEN” TO THE ICE TO FIND OUT WHAT’S UNDERNEATH

Artist's rendering of a possible Europa Lander mission, which would explore the surface of the icy moon in the coming decades. Credit:: NASA/JPL-Caltech



Image of Europa’s ice shell, taken by the Galileo spacecraft, of fractured “chaos terrain”. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Europa’s “Great Lake.” Scientists speculate many more exist throughout the shallow regions of the moon’s icy shell. Credit: Britney Schmidt/Dead Pixel FX/Univ. of Texas at Austin.

Artist’s concept of chloride salts bubbling up from Europa’s liquid ocean and reaching the frozen surface. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA SIMULATION SHOWS HOW EUROPA’S “FOSSIL OCEAN” RISES TO THE SURFACE OVER TIME

This animation demonstrates how deformation in the icy surface of Europa could transport subsurface ocean water to the moon’s surface. This is just one of several simulated behaviors reported in a new study performed by scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The study focused on linear features called “bands” and “groove lanes” found on Jupiter’s moons Europa and Ganymede. Scientists have used the same numerical model to solve mysteries about motion in Earth’s crust. The animation is a two-dimensional simulation of a possible cross-section of a band running through Europa’s ice shell. At the extreme bottom is Europa’s ocean, and the thick white line across the top represents the moon’s surface ice. The midsection is the bulk of Europa’s ice shell, with warmer colors (red, orange, yellow) representing stronger, more rigid ice. Depth is marked on the left side of the animation while numbers on the bottom measure distance from the center of the band feature on Europa’s surface. Bands on Europa and Ganymede are typically tens of miles wide and hundreds of miles long. Numbers at the top mark the passage of time in thousands of years. As the animation runs forward, the ice shell is deformed by gravitational interactions with Jupiter. The cold, brittle ice at the surface gets pulled apart. At the same time, faults in the upper ice form, heal, and re-form (visible as diagonal yellow, green and blue lines in the upper center of the animation). The churning material that quickly fills the bottom half of the view is a collection of tiny white dots representing bits of Europa’s ocean that have been frozen into the bottom of Europa’s ice shell (i.e. where the liquid ocean is in contact with the frozen shell). In the paper, the scientists describe it as “fossil” ocean material because the bits of ocean trapped in Europa’s ice shell spend many hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of years being carried to the surface. In other words, by the time the ocean material reaches Europa’s surface where it can be analyzed by a passing spacecraft, it no longer serves as a sample of Europa’s ocean as it is in the present. Instead, the spacecraft would actually be studying Europa’s ocean as it was a million or more years ago. Hence, it is fossil ocean material. NASA’s Europa Clipper spacecraft is intended to launch in the early 2020s. The spacecraft will then orbit Jupiter and become the first spacecraft to study Europa exclusively, including the composition of the moon’s surface material. The mission will likely be able to test the model simulated above by using ice-penetrating radar to probe the moon’s bands. If Europa indeed behaves the way the simulation suggests, it might carry ocean material to the moon’s surface, where Europa Clipper would analyze it remotely using the spacecraft’s infrared and ultraviolet instruments, among others. Scientists could then study the material’s composition to consider whether Europa’s ocean might be hospitable for some form of life. Gretchen McCartney Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. 818-393-6215 gretchen.p.mccartney@jpl.nasa.gov animation credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Samuel M. Howell

Images from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft show the intricate detail of Europa’s icy surface. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Based on new evidence from Jupiter's moon Europa, astronomers hypothesize that chloride salts bubble up from the icy moon's global liquid ocean and reach the frozen surface where they are bombarded with sulfur from volcanoes on Jupiter's innermost large moon Io. The new findings propose answers to questions that have been debated since the days of NASA's Voyager and Galileo missions. This illustration of Europa (foreground), Jupiter (right) and Io (middle) is an artist's concept. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist's concept of a cryobot in the ocean of Jupiter's moon Europa. Image credit: NASA.

LIFE ON EUROPA WOULD BE PROTECTED BY JUST A FEW CENTIMETERS OF ICE

Radiation from Jupiter can destroy molecules on Europa's surface. Material from Europa's ocean that ends up on the surface will be bombarded by radiation, possibly destroying any biosignatures, or chemical signs that could imply the presence of life. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s concept of chloride salts bubbling up from Europa’s liquid ocean and reaching the frozen surface. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s concept of a Europa Clipper mission. Credit: NASA/JPL

A plume of subsurface ocean water vapor escapes through a crack in the icy crust of Europa, a moon of Jupiter CREDIR:.NASA/ESA/K. Retherford/SWRI) Jupiter's moon Europa — a giant ice ball thought to hide twice as much liquid water as there is on Earth —
just became an even hotter target in the search for aliens. Scientists on Monday unveiled new photographs from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and they likely show "fingers"
of water vapor squirting out of Europa's hidden ocean and into space.



A Nuclear-Powered Tunneling Robot that Could Search for Life on Europa

The search for life has led astronomers to the icy moons in our Solar System. Among those moons, Europa has attracted a lot of attention. Europa is Jupiter’s fourth-largest moon—and the sixth-largest in the Solar System—at 3,100 kilometres (1,900 mi) in diameter. Scientists think that its oceans could contain two or three times as much water as Earth’s oceans. The only problem is, that water is hidden under a sheet of planet-wide ice that could be between 2km and 30km (1.2 miles and 18.6 miles) thick.

Two models of the interior of Europa. A tunneling robot would be able to tunnel through the ice and search for life. Image: NASA/JPL.

Reprocessed Galileo image of Europa’s frozen surface by Ted Stryk (NASA/JPL/Ted Stryk)

Images from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft show the intricate detail of Europa’s icy surface. A tunnelling robot would be just the vehicle to explore the oceans under the ice. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ SETI Institute

Image of Europa’s ice shell, taken by the Galileo spacecraft, of fractured “chaos terrain.” A tunneling robot would likely be sent to this type of surface area. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


Exploring The Icy Moons of Jupiter. NASA’s Europa Clipper and ESA’s JUICE

Artist’s concept of a Europa Clipper mission. Credit: NASA/JPL

Exploring The Icy Moons of Jupiter. NASA's Europa Clipper and ESA's JUICE

Mars is the place that most of our spacecraft, landers and rovers are studying, searching for any evidence that life ever existed somewhere else in the Solar System. But talk to planetary scientists, and they’re just as excited about the ocean worlds of the Solar System; the moons, asteroids, dwarf planets and Kuiper Belt objects where there could be vast oceans of liquid water under thick shells of ice. The perfect environment for life to thrive. We’ve only had tantalizing hints that these oceans are there, but NASA is building a spacecraft that will study one of these worlds in detail: the Europa Clipper. And they’re not the only ones. The European Space Agency is building their own mission, the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer. Our Book is out! Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 References: Evidence for an Ocean on Europa Solar System Exploration NASA Mission Named 'Europa Clipper' Europa Instruments Europa or Enceladus? If NASA switches from SLS to Falcon Heavy, it won’t have to choose Old Data Reveal New Evidence of Europa Plumes Full Congreessional Report (PDF) Without a champion, Europa lander falls to NASA’s back burner NASA’S EUROPA LANDER MAY BE IN JEOPARDY AFTER THE MIDTERMS — AND SOME ARE FINE WITH SEEING IT GO Without Culberson, the lander no longer has its champion 50-foot ice spikes may dot Europa's surface JUICE ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT (YELLOW BOOK) Juice Science objectives Ganymede ARIANESPACE AND ESA ANNOUNCE JUPITER ICY MOONS EXPLORER LAUNCH CONTRACT

Artist impression of Pioneer 10 at Jupiter. Image credit: NASA/JPL

Images from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft show the intricate detail of Europa’s icy surface. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s impression of Europa’s interior, based on data obtained by Galileo space probes Credit: NASA

Test facility designed for the Europa Clipper. Credit: NASA/Langley

Graphic shows all the dome, barrel, ring and engine components used to assemble the five major structures of the core stage of NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) in Block 1 configuration. Credits: NASA/MSFC

Illustration of Jupiter and Europa with the measurements made by Galileo as it passed through the plume. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Michigan

Re-analyzing Old Data Reveals New Evidence at Europa

New science, mined from the archives. Data from NASA Galileo orbiter launched a generation ago yields new evidence of plumes, eruptions of water vapor, from Jupiter's moon Europa.

Artist’s rendering of a possible Europa Lander mission, which would explore the surface of the icy moon in the coming decades. Credit:: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s impression of the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) near Jupiter and one of its moons, Europa. Credit: ESA/AOES

This artist’s concept of Jupiter’s moon Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, illustrates the club sandwich model of its interior oceans. Credit: NASA/JPL


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ARTICLES


Saltwater Similar to the Earth’s Oceans has been Seen on Europa.
Another Good Reason Why We Really Need to Visit This Place



VIDEOS

The Lure of Europa - Featuring Bill Nye and special guests


Published on Aug 4, 2014 Europa is a moon of Jupiter that may have three crucial ingredients for life: liquid water, energy, and nutrients. What, if anything, can be found in the great oceans of Europa? Could NASA look for life? How could we explore affordably? Bill Nye The Science Guy, eminent NASA scientists, and prominent legislators examined just these questions in a public event inside the halls of Congress. This was recorded live on July 15th, 2014. Recorded by Tushar Dayal. Speakers (in order of appearance): * Casey Dreier (Director of Advocacy for The Planetary Society and event emcee) * Rep. Lamar Smith (Chairman, House Science Committee; Texas 21st District) * Rep. John Culberson (Texas 7th District) * Rep. Adam Schiff (California 21st District) * Dr. Ellen Stofan (Chief Scientist, NASA) * Dr. Robert Pappalardo (Europa Study Scientist, JPL) * Bill Nye, The Science Guy (CEO of The Planetary Society)

Europa: Ocean World


Published on Nov 21, 2014 Scientists believe there is an ocean hidden beneath the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. NASA-JPL astrobiologist Kevin Hand explains why scientists are so excited about the potential of this ice-covered world to answer one of humanity's most profound questions

NASA 360 Talks - Alien Ocean

Published on Nov 13, 2015 Could life exist on Europa? It may sound farfetched, but this Jovian moon is the most likely place to find life in our solar system thanks to an enormous underground ocean positioned just beneath its icy surface. Watch as Robert Pappalardo, Europa Project Scientist at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, discusses Europa, its potential for life, and the upcoming mission that is being planned to visit this compelling moon. This video was developed from a live recording at the AIAA SPACE 2015 conference in September 2015. To watch the full talk given at the conference click here Category People & Blogs License Standard YouTube License

Searching for Life on Europa? Going Under the Ice

We’re now learning that icy worlds seem to be the best places in Solar System where life could be hiding. Worlds like Europa and Enceladus, which have vast oceans of liquid water beneath a shell of water ice. And just in the last year, astrobiologists announced that hardy forms of Earth life should be able to thrive in these oceans, feeding off hydrogen gas emanating from deep sea vents. Clearly we need to explore these worlds, to go deep down beneath the ice to explore the ocean depths. But how do you drill through kilometers of ice to reach it? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at: More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com @karlaii /Karla Thompson - Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 References: EUROPA EXPLORATION OF UNDER-ICE REGIONS WITH
OCEAN PROFILING AGENTS (PDF)
Exploration of Under-Ice Regions with Ocean Profiling Agents (EUROPA) APL-UW ICE DIVER A THERMAL ICE PENETRATOR Gladius Submersible Underwater Drone
The most affordable, easy to use underwater photography drone w 4k camera, 100m depth & 500m range.
UNDERWATER GLIDERS: DYNAMICS, CONTROL AND DESIGN Joshua Grady Graver Underwater Gliders: A Review

Enabling Onboard Detection of Events of Scientific Interest for the Europa Clipper Spacecraft

Authors: Kiri Wagstaff, Gary Doran, Ashley Davies, Saadat Anwar, Srija Chakraborty, Marissa Cameron, Ingrid Daubar and Cynthia Phillips More on Category People & Blogs Music in this video Learn more Listen ad-free with YouTube Premium Song BER1277_71 - Clediss-14494 Artist Thomas Stempfle, GEMA|Tom Sue, GEMA Album BER1277Intense Electronica 3 Licensed to YouTube by AdRev for a 3rd Party (on behalf of Berlin Production Music|Ed.Berlin Production Music/Universal Production Music GmbH, GEMA|Killer Tracks (UPPM)); AdRev Publishing

Alien Ocean: NASA’s Mission to Europa

Could a liquid water ocean beneath the surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa have the ingredients to support life? Here's how NASA's mission to Europa would find out.


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