Mission to the Universe

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PAGE Table of Contents

Introduction.

Info graphics of the Univerese!.

Information on the close in Universe.

Information on the Birth of the universe.

Information on the Evolution of the universe.

Information on Life in the Universe.

Some observatories, Observing the Universe!

The Square Kilometer Telescope proposal

The Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millineter Array (ALMA).

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

Published on Dec 2, 2015 Longer version Category Education License Standard YouTube License

ASTRONOMERS START MAPPING THE STRUCTURE OF THE FAR SIDE OF THE MILKY WAY

Artist's impression of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a bar. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESO/R. Hurt

Artist’s view of the Milky Way with the location of the Sun and the star forming region at the opposite side in the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm. Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF; Robert Hurt, NASA.


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Traveling to the Stars!!!!!!

Mission to the Universe from Space plama.com

The ship from the movie INTERSTELLAR

Here's what we would have to do to reach a star in less than a hundred years.
Source SPACE.com: All about our solar system, outer space and exploration

Going Interstellar

Published on Feb 11, 2016 Imagine getting to Mars in just 3 days… or putting points beyond our solar system within our reach. New propulsion technologies could one day take us to these cosmic destinations making space travel truly interstellar! NASA 360 joins Professor Philip Lubin, University of California Santa Barbara, as he discusses his NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) for energy propulsion for interstellar exploration. To view "A Roadmap to Interstellar Flight" (cited in the video) visit: This video was developed from a live recording at the 2015 NIAC Fall Symposium in October, 2015. To watch the full original talk please visit: This video represents a research study within the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program. NIAC is a visionary and far-reaching aerospace program, one that has the potential to create breakthrough technologies for possible future space missions. However, such early stage technology development may never become actual NASA missions. For more information about NIAC, visit: Category People & Blogs License Standard YouTube License


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Our Milky Way Galaxy

Hubble Data Help Show How Milky Way Galaxy Got Its Spiral Shape

Latest Milky Way Map in 3D

THE MOST DETAILED MAP EVER MADE OF THE MILKY WAY IN RADIO WAVES

The FUGIN project used the 45 meter Nobeyama radio telescope in Japan to produce the most detailed radio wave map yet of the Milky Way. Top: Three color (false color) radio map of the Milky Way (l=10-50 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. Red, green, and blue represent the radio intensities of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. Second Line: Infrared image of the same region obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Red, green, and blue represent the intensities of 24?m, 8?m, and 5.8?m radio waves respectively. Top Zoom-In: Three color radio map of the Milky Way (l=12-22 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. The colors are the same as the top image. Lower-Left Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the W51 region. The colors are the same as the top image.Lower-Right Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the M17 region. The colors are the same as the top image. Image: NAOJ/NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Nobeyama 45m radio telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan. Image:NAOJ

Starscape photograph taken at Nobeyama Radio Observatory by Norikazu Okabe. The FUGIN observation region (l=10-50 deg) is marked. Credit: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

An artist’s image showing the major features of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech, ESO, J. Hurt

Totally Spectacular Flyover Through The Veil Nebula

The Hubble Space Telescope took a new image of the Veil Nebula, a supernova remnant from a star that exploded 8,000 years ago, and made this truly spectacular flyover visualisation of the beautiful ripple in space that you can see below. In the 3D visualisation, red is sulphur, green is hydrogen and blue is oxygen.

Amateur Astronomer Chases Down Barnard’s Star – You Can Too!
by BOB KING on SEPTEMBER 17, 2015

9-year-animation of Barnard’s Star from 2007 to July 2015 as it tracked north through Ophiuchus at the rate of 10.3 arc seconds per year. Amateur Rick Johnson photographed it once each year to creater the movie. You can watch the same thing in your telescope if you’re patient! Credit: Rick Johnson

Cool, Dim Dwarf Star is Magnetic Powerhouse; The red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546.

Animation of artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks

Artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks

Visible Light from a Black Hole Spotted by Telescope, a First by Charles Q. Choi, Space.com Contributor | January 06, 2016 01:01pm ET

For the first time, astronomers have seen dim flickers of visible light from near a black hole,
researchers with an international science team said. In fact, the light could be visible to anyone with a moderate-size telescope.


NASA Telescopes Detect Jupiter-Like Storm on Small Star Dec 11, 2015

- See more

This illustration shows a cool star, called W1906+40, marked by a raging storm near one of its poles.
The storm is thought to be similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Scientists discovered it
using NASA’s Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech - See more

DID THE MILKY WAY STEAL THESE STARS OR KICK THEM OUT OF THE GALAXY?

The Milky Way galaxy, perturbed by the tidal interaction with a dwarf galaxy, as predicted by N-body simulations. The locations of the observed stars above and below the disk, which are used to test the perturbation scenario, are indicated. Credit: T. Mueller/C. Laporte/NASA/JPL-Caletch

Artist’s impression of the Milky Way Galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)

Computer model of the Milky Way and its smaller neighbor, the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Credit: Tollerud, Purcell and Bullock/UC Irvine

360-degree panorama view of the Milky Way (an assembled mosaic of photographs) by ESO. Credit: ESO/S. Brunier


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News Release Number: STScI-2016-04 Monstrous Cloud Boomerangs Back to Our Galaxy - January 28, 2016


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Black Holes and Dense stars in the Universe

Black Hole Infographic

10 Amazing Facts About Black Holes by Elizabeth Howell on January 22, 2015

An artists illustration of the central engine of a Quasar.
These ?Quasi-stellar Objects? QSOs are now recognized as the super massive black holes
at the center of emerging galaxies in the early Universe. (Photo Credit: NASA)
Imagine matter packed so densely that nothing can escape. Not a moon, not a planet and not even light.
That?s what black holes are ? a spot where gravity?s pull is huge, ending up being dangerous for anything that accidentally strays by.

Black Holes

Computer-Simulated Image of a Supermassive Black Hole

This computer-simulated image shows a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy.
The black region in the center represents the black hole’s event horizon, where no light can escape the massive object’s gravitational grip.
The black hole’s powerful gravity distorts space around it like a funhouse mirror. Light from background stars is stretched and smeared
as the stars skim by the black hole. Astronomers have uncovered a near-record breaking supermassive black hole, weighing 17 billion suns,
in an unlikely place: in the center of a galaxy in a sparsely populated area of the universe.
The observations, made by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini Telescope in Hawaii, may
indicate that these monster objects may be more common than once thought.

Inside the heart of a Hellish Neutron Star

Stellar Evolutiuon

Saved from Harvard University Carol Tavares saved to The Universe Stellar Evolution Infographic: The rate of evolution and the ultimate fate of a star depends on its mass. (Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)

THIS IS THE SURFACE OF A GIANT STAR, 350 TIMES LARGER THAN THE SUN

This artist’s impression shows the red supergiant star. Using ESO’s Very Large Telescope Interferometer, an international team of astronomers have constructed the most detailed image ever of this, or any star other than the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Artist’s impression of the Earth scorched by our Sun as it enters its Red Giant Branch phase. Credit: Wikimedia Commons/Fsgregs

An illustration of the structure of the Sun and a red giant star, showing their convective zones. These are the granular zones in the outer layers of the stars. Credit: ESO

Astronomers watch the aftermath of a star ripped apart by a huge black hole



Here's the deal. In the center of every big galaxy is a big black hole, one so big we call it supermassive. When the Universe was young this central black hole formed along with its galaxy, and in many ways the two affect each other as they both grow. Over time, as the galaxy grows big, so does that beast in the middle.


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FAST RADIO BURSTS!!!!!!!!!!!!

MISSING MATTER FOUND! FAST RADIO BURSTS CONFIRM COSMOLOGICAL MODEL

Researchers at the CSIRO have managed to pinpoint the location of an FRB for the first time, yielding valuable information about our universe. Credit:

Image showing the field of view of the Parkes radio telescope (left) and zoom-ins on the area where the signal came from (left).
Credit: D. Kaplan (UWM), E. F. Keane (SKAO).

Redshift occurs as a result of an object moving away at relativistic speeds (a portion of the speed of light).
For decades, scientists have been using it to determine how fast other galaxies are moving away from our own,
and hence the rate of expansion of the Universe. Relying on optical data obtained by the Subaru telescope,
the CSIRO team was able to obtain both the dispersion and the redshift data from this signal.

A fast radio burst detected in 2012 by the Arecibo Observatory has scientists searching for its source.
Credit and Copyright: Danielle Futselaar

The NSF’s Arecibo Observatory, which is located in Puerto Rico, is the world largest radio telescope.
Credit: NAIC

The Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. Credit: Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis

Artists impression of the SKA-mid dishes in Africa shows how they may eventually look when completed. Credit:

Radio signals converted to sounds from Space!


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G A L A X I E S !!!!!

GALAXIES INFOGRAPHICS

Warp into a stellar nursey 3,000 light years away


The Party's Over for These Youthful Compact Galaxies

ABOUT THIS IMAGE: This graphic illustrates how a vibrant, star-forming galaxy quickly transforms
into a sedate galaxy composed of old stars. The scenario begins when two galaxies merge
(Panel 1),funneling a large amount of gas into the central region. The gas compresses, sparking a firestorm of star birth,
(Panel 2) which blows out most of the remaining star-forming gas
.(Panel 3). Devoid of its fuel, the galaxy settles into a quiet existence, composed of aging stars Image Type: Illustration Illustration Credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI) Science Credit: P. Sell (Texas Tech University)

The Largest Galaxy in the Universe: IC 1101

NASA’s Fermi finds hints of gamma-ray cycle in active galaxy

Fermi observations suggest possible years-long cyclic changes in gamma-ray emission from the blazar PG 1553+113.
The graph shows Fermi Large Area Telescope data from August 2008 to July 2015 for gamma rays with energies above 100 million electron volts (MeV).
For comparison, visible light ranges between 2 and 3 electron volts. Vertical lines on data points are error bars.
Background: One possible explanation for the gamma-ray cycle is an oscillation of the jet produced by the gravitational pull
of a second massive black hole, seen at top left in this artist’s rendering.
Image credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab.

A NEW SURVEY TAKES THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD TO THE NEXT LEVEL,
ANALYZING DISTANCE AND PROPERTIES OF 1,600 GALAXIES

Images from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). Credit: NASA/ESA/S. Beckwith (STScI)/HUDF Team

This video gives a close-up view of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region, a tiny but much-studied region in the constellation of Fornax, as observed with the MUSE instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope. But this rich and colourful picture only gives a very partial view of the power of the MUSE data, which also provide a spectrum for each pixel in the picture. This data set has allowed astronomers not only to measure distances for far more of these galaxies than before — a total of 1600 — but also to find out much more about each of them. Surprisingly 72 new galaxies were found that had eluded deep imaging with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. More information and download options:

Astronomers using the MUSE instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope in Chile have conducted the deepest spectroscopic survey ever. They focused on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, measuring distances and properties of 1600 very faint galaxies including 72 galaxies that have never been detected before, even by Hubble itself. This wealth of new information is giving astronomers insight into star formation in the early Universe, and allows them to study the motions and other properties of early galaxies — made possible by MUSE’s unique spectroscopic capabilities. This short ESOcast Light gives a quick overview of this important data set. More information and download options: Subscribe to ESOcast in iTunes! Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: Watch more ESOcast episodes: :Find out how to view and contribute subtitles for the ESOcast in multiple languages, or translate this video on YouTube Credit: ESO Editing: Nico Bartmann Web and technical support: Mathias André and Raquel Yumi Shida Written by: Rosa Jesse, Nicole Shearer and Richard Hook Music: Music written and performed by: tonelabs Footage and photos: ESO, Mark Swinbank, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, M. Fumagalli, L. Calçada, MUSE HUDF collaboration Directed by: Nico Bartmann Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) SHOW LESS

NEW MAP SHOWS THE MOTION OF ALL THE GALAXIES IN OUR SUPERCLUSTER

A mosaic of telescopic images showing the galaxies of the Virgo Supercluster. Credit: NASA/Rogelio Bernal Andreo

Orbits of galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Credit: Brent Tully.

There's a strange place in the sky where everything is attracted. And unfortunately, it's on the other side of the Milky Way, so we can't see it. What could be doing all this attracting?

Superclusters – regions of space that are densely packed with galaxies – are the biggest structures in the Universe. But scientists have struggled to define exactly where one supercluster ends and another begins. Now, a team based in Hawaii has come up with a new technique that maps the Universe according to the flow of galaxies across space. Redrawing the boundaries of the cosmic map, they redefine our home supercluster and name it Laniakea, which means ‘immeasurable heaven’ in Hawaiian. : Read the research paper Read Nature's news story: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License SHOW LESS

Our Violent Universe - IMAX Presentation

The massive galaxy cluster Abell 370 as seen by Hubble Space Telescope in the final Frontier Fields observations. Credit: NASA/ESA/HFF

The galaxy clusters Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, MACS J1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, Abell 370. Credit: NASA, ESA, STScI, and the HFF team

Images of the MACS J0416.1–2403 and Abell 2744 galaxy clusters, taken as part of the Hubble Frontier Fields program. Credit: NASA/ESA/HST Frontier Fields team (STScI)

GAIA LOOKS BEYOND OUR GALAXY TO OTHER ISLANDS OF STARS

Color view of M31 (The Andromeda Galaxy), with M32 (a satellite galaxy) shown to the lower left. Credit and copyright: Terry Hancock.

Gaia’s view of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Click here for further details, full credits, and larger versions of the image. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC

Gaia’s view of the Andromeda galaxy. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC


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Mission to the Universe

Our Violent Universe - IMAX Presentation

UPCOSMOS a website about the cosmos!!!

An Infrared Map of the Universe

This all-sky view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way.
The image is derived from the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, which contains more than 1.5 million galaxies,
and the Point Source Catalog, which holds nearly 500 million stars within the Milky Way.
The galaxies are color coded for distances obtained by various surveys. The nearest sources are blue,
moderately distant sources are green, and red represents the farthest sources.

Our Violent Universe - IMAX Presentation

Published on Nov 17, 2015 Our universe is more than a serene landscape of stars--it is teeming with activity from some extremely violent events.
In a presentation at the IMAX theatre at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. on September 30 2015,
scientists take us inside our violent universe with stunning visuals from NASA satellites.
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MOST ‘OUTRAGEOUS’ LUMINOUS GALAXIES EVER OBSERVED in the universe 24 Mar , 2016 by Evan Gough

An artist's conception of an extremely luminous infrared galaxy similar to the ones reported in this paper.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Our Position in the Universe

Timeline of the Universe!

The Most Detailed Map to Date of Our Place in the Universe!

The Most Detailed Map to Date of Our Place in the Universe from Futurism on Vimeo.

Fate of the Universe!!

From futurism.com"

Scientists are fairly certain that, one day, our universe will come to an end. Here's how they think this might happen.

Logarithms help us make sense of huge numbers, and in this case, huge distances. Rather than showing all parts of the universe
on a linear scale, each chunk of the circle represents a field of view several orders of magnitude larger than the one before it.
That's why the entire observable universe can fit inside the circle.

The Universe is big!!!!

Team simulates the expansion of the Universe

The gravitational waves generated during the formation of structures in the universe are shown.
The structures (distribution of masses) are shown as bright dots, gravitational waves by ellipses.
The size of the ellipse is proportional to the amplitude of the wave and its orientation represents its polarization.
Credit: © Ruth Durrer, UNIGE Read more

THe Ekpyotic Model

Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University has proposed a "Ekpyrotic Model" of the Universe
that describes our current universe as arising from a collision of two three-dimensional worlds (branes)
in a space with an extra (fourth) spatial dimension. The proposal is interesting in and of itself,

History of the Universe

Logarithmic Maps of the Universe

This is a nice map of the universe in a logarithmic scale by Gott, Juric et al. starting from the Earth interior up to the edge of the visible universe. Credit:Planetary Habitability Laboratory University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo posted Jul 6, 2011, 8:01 AM by Abel Mendez


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EXO SOLAR SYSTEMS

Artist's impression of the "Black Hole Ultimate Solar System".

Credit:



Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

What Is The Habitable Zone?


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We've found hundreds of exoplanets in the galaxy. But only a few of them have just the right combination of factors to hold life like Earth's. The weather in your hometown is downright uninhabitable. There’s scorching heatwaves, annual tyhpoonic deluges, and snow deep enough to bury a corn silo. The bad news is planet Earth is the only habitable place we know of in the entire Universe. Also, are the Niburians suffering from Niburian made climate change? Only Niburian Al Gore can answer that question. We as a species are interested in habitability for an assortment of reasons, political, financial, humanitarian and scientific. We want to understand how our own climate is changing. How we’ll live in the climate of the future and what we can do to stem the tide of what our carbon consumption causes. There could be agendas to push for cleaner energy sources, or driving politicians towards climate change denial to maintain nefarious financial gain. We also might need a new lilypad to jump to, assuming we can sort out the travel obstacles. The thing that interests me personally the most is, when can I see an alien? The habitable zone, also known as the “Goldilocks Zone”, is the region around a star where the average temperature on a planet allows for liquid water with which to make porridge. It’s that liquid water that we hunt for not only for our future uses, but as an indicator of where alien life could be in the Universe. Problems outside this range are pretty obvious. Too hot, it’s a perpetual steam bath, or it produces separate piles of hydrogen and oxygen. Then your oxygen combines with carbon to form carbon dioxide, and then hydrogen just buggers off into space. This is what happened with Venus. If the planet’s too cold, then bodies of water are solid skating rinks. There could be pockets of liquid water deep beneath the icy surface, but overall, they’re bad places to live. We’ve got this on Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The habitable zone is a rough measurement. It’s a place where liquid water might exist. Unfortunately, it’s not just a simple equation of the distance to the star versus the amount of energy output. The atmosphere of the planet matters a lot. In fact, both Venus and Mars are considered to be within the Solar System’s habitable zone. Venusian atmosphere is so thick with carbon dioxide that it traps energy from the Sun and creates an inhospitable oven of heat that would quickboil any life faster than you can say “pass the garlic butter”. It’s the opposite on Mars. The thin atmosphere won’t trap any heat at all, so the planet is bun-chillingly cold. Upgrade the atmospheres of either planet and you could get worlds which would be perfectly reasonable to live on. Maybe if we could bash them together and we could spill the atmosphere of one onto the other? Tell Blackbolt to ring up Franklin Richards, I have an idea! When we look at other worlds in the Milky Way and wonder if they have life, it’s not enough to just check to see if they’re in the habitable zone. We need to know what shape their atmosphere is in. Astronomers have actually discovered planets located in the habitable zones around other stars, but from what we can tell, they’re probably not places you’d want to live. They’re all orbiting red dwarf stars. It doesn’t sound too bad to live in a red tinted landscape, provided it came with an Angelo Badalamenti soundtrack, red dwarf stars are extremely violent in their youth. They blast out enormous solar flares and coronal mass ejections. These would scour the surface of any planets caught orbiting them close enough for liquid water to be present. There is some hope. After a few hundred million years of high activity, these red dwarf stars settle down and sip away at their fuel reserves of hydrogen for potentially trillions of years. If life can hold on long enough to get through the early stages, it might have a long existence ahead of it. When you’re thinking about a new home among the stars, or trying to seek out new life in the Universe, look for planets in the habitable zone. As we’ve seen, it’s only a rough guideline. You probably want to check out the place first and make sure it’s truly liveable before you commit to a timeshare condo around Gliese 581. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Illustration of tightly-packed orbits of Earth-mass planets in orbit around the Sun (in black) vs. around a supermassive black hole (green). Credit: Sean Raymond

Based upon this system.


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THE UNIVERSE’S MISSING MATTER. FOUND!

A simulation of the cosmic web, diffuse tendrils of gas that connect galaxies across the universe. Credit: Illustris Collaboration

Bayron Census

THE BARYON CENSUS IN A MULTIPHASE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM:
30% OF THE BARYONS MAY STILL BE MISSING (PDF)

J. Michael Shull, Britton D. Smith1, and Charles W. Danforth CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; michael.shull@colorado.edu, smit1685@msu.edu, charles.danforth@colorado.edu Received 2011 December 6; accepted 2012 September 12; published 2012 October 12

Artist’s impression of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times that of the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Close-up of star near a supermassive black hole (artist’s impression). Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser


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