Ian Bennett Published on Sep 2, 2012
Published on Dec 2, 2015 Longer version Category Education License Standard YouTube License
Artist's impression of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a bar. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESO/R. Hurt
Artist�s view of the Milky Way with the location of the Sun and the star forming region at the opposite side in the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm. Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF; Robert Hurt, NASA.
Published on Feb 11, 2016 Imagine getting to Mars in just 3 days� or putting points beyond our solar system within our reach. New propulsion technologies could one day take us to these cosmic destinations making space travel truly interstellar! NASA 360 joins Professor Philip Lubin, University of California Santa Barbara, as he discusses his NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) for energy propulsion for interstellar exploration. To view "A Roadmap to Interstellar Flight" (cited in the video) visit: This video was developed from a live recording at the 2015 NIAC Fall Symposium in October, 2015. To watch the full original talk please visit: This video represents a research study within the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program. NIAC is a visionary and far-reaching aerospace program, one that has the potential to create breakthrough technologies for possible future space missions. However, such early stage technology development may never become actual NASA missions. For more information about NIAC, visit: Category People & Blogs License Standard YouTube License
Image: A Bussard ramjet in flight, as imagined for ESA’s Innovative Technologies from Science Fiction project. Credit: ESA/Manchu.
The FUGIN project used the 45 meter Nobeyama radio telescope in Japan to produce the most detailed radio wave map yet of the Milky Way. Top: Three color (false color) radio map of the Milky Way (l=10-50 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. Red, green, and blue represent the radio intensities of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. Second Line: Infrared image of the same region obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Red, green, and blue represent the intensities of 24?m, 8?m, and 5.8?m radio waves respectively. Top Zoom-In: Three color radio map of the Milky Way (l=12-22 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. The colors are the same as the top image. Lower-Left Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the W51 region. The colors are the same as the top image.Lower-Right Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the M17 region. The colors are the same as the top image. Image: NAOJ/NASA/JPL-Caltech
The Nobeyama 45m radio telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan. Image:NAOJ
Starscape photograph taken at Nobeyama Radio Observatory by Norikazu Okabe. The FUGIN observation region (l=10-50 deg) is marked. Credit: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
An artist�s image showing the major features of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech, ESO, J. Hurt
The Hubble Space Telescope took a new image of the Veil Nebula, a supernova remnant from a star that exploded 8,000 years ago, and made this truly spectacular flyover visualisation of the beautiful ripple in space that you can see below. In the 3D visualisation, red is sulphur, green is hydrogen and blue is oxygen.
9-year-animation of Barnard�s Star from 2007 to July 2015 as it tracked north through Ophiuchus at the rate of 10.3 arc seconds per year. Amateur Rick Johnson photographed it once each year to creater the movie. You can watch the same thing in your telescope if you�re patient! Credit: Rick Johnson
Animation of artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks
Artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks
For the first time, astronomers have seen dim flickers of visible light from near a black hole,
researchers with an international science team said. In fact, the light could be visible to anyone with a moderate-size telescope.
This illustration shows a cool star, called W1906+40, marked by a raging storm near one of its poles.
The storm is thought to be similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Scientists discovered it
using NASA�s Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech - See more
The Milky Way galaxy, perturbed by the tidal interaction with a dwarf galaxy, as predicted by N-body simulations. The locations of the observed stars above and below the disk, which are used to test the perturbation scenario, are indicated. Credit: T. Mueller/C. Laporte/NASA/JPL-Caletch
Artist�s impression of the Milky Way Galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)
Computer model of the Milky Way and its smaller neighbor, the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Credit: Tollerud, Purcell and Bullock/UC Irvine
360-degree panorama view of the Milky Way (an assembled mosaic of photographs) by ESO. Credit: ESO/S. Brunier
Top left: simulation of Sgr A* at 86 GHz without interstellar scattering. Top right: simulation with interstellar scattering. Bottom right: observed image of Sgr A*. Bottom left: observed image of Sgr A* after removing the effects of interstellar scattering. Credit: S. Issaoun, M. Mo?cibrodzka, Radboud University/ M. D. Johnson, CfA
This artist�s concept shows a �feeding,� or active, supermassive black hole with a jet streaming outward at nearly the speed of light. Such active black holes are often found at the hearts of elliptical galaxies. If a jet happens to shine at Earth, the object is called a blazar. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
An artist�s impression of the accretion disc around the supermassive black hole that powers an active galaxy. Astronomers want to know if the energy radiated from our galaxy�s supermassive black hole is caused by jets of material shooting away from the hole, or by the accretion disk of swirling material near the hole. Credit: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital
The Global Millimeter VLBI Array, joined by ALMA. Credit: S. Issaoun, Radboud University/ D. Pesce, CfA
Researchers using the Event Horizon Telescope hope to generate images like this of supermassive black hole Sag. A�s event horizon. Image Credit: EHT.
An artists illustration of the central engine of a Quasar.
These ?Quasi-stellar Objects? QSOs are now recognized as the super massive black holes
at the center of emerging galaxies in the early Universe. (Photo Credit: NASA)
Imagine matter packed so densely that nothing can escape. Not a moon, not a planet and not even light.
That?s what black holes are ? a spot where gravity?s pull is huge, ending up being dangerous for anything that accidentally strays by.
This computer-simulated image shows a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy.
The black region in the center represents the black hole�s event horizon, where no light can escape the massive object�s gravitational grip.
The black hole�s powerful gravity distorts space around it like a funhouse mirror. Light from background stars is stretched and smeared
as the stars skim by the black hole. Astronomers have uncovered a near-record breaking supermassive black hole, weighing 17 billion suns,
in an unlikely place: in the center of a galaxy in a sparsely populated area of the universe.
The observations, made by NASA�s Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini Telescope in Hawaii, may
indicate that these monster objects may be more common than once thought.
Saved from Harvard University Carol Tavares saved to The Universe Stellar Evolution Infographic: The rate of evolution and the ultimate fate of a star depends on its mass. (Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)
This artist�s impression shows the red supergiant star. Using ESO�s Very Large Telescope Interferometer, an international team of astronomers have constructed the most detailed image ever of this, or any star other than the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser
Artist�s impression of the Earth scorched by our Sun as it enters its Red Giant Branch phase. Credit: Wikimedia Commons/Fsgregs
An illustration of the structure of the Sun and a red giant star, showing their convective zones. These are the granular zones in the outer layers of the stars. Credit: ESO
Here's the deal. In the center of every big galaxy is a big black hole, one so big we call it supermassive. When the Universe was young this central black hole formed along with its galaxy, and in many ways the two affect each other as they both grow. Over time, as the galaxy grows big, so does that beast in the middle.
Researchers at the CSIRO have managed to pinpoint the location of an FRB for the first time, yielding valuable information about our universe. Credit:
Image showing the field of view of the Parkes radio telescope (left) and zoom-ins on the area where the signal came from (left).
Credit: D. Kaplan (UWM), E. F. Keane (SKAO).
Redshift occurs as a result of an object moving away at relativistic speeds (a portion of the speed of light).
For decades, scientists have been using it to determine how fast other galaxies are moving away from our own,
and hence the rate of expansion of the Universe. Relying on optical data obtained by the Subaru telescope,
the CSIRO team was able to obtain both the dispersion and the redshift data from this signal.
A fast radio burst detected in 2012 by the Arecibo Observatory has scientists searching for its source.
Credit and Copyright: Danielle Futselaar
The NSF�s Arecibo Observatory, which is located in Puerto Rico, is the world's second largest radio telescope Credit: NAIC
The Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. Credit: Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis
Artists impression of the SKA-mid dishes in Africa shows how they may eventually look when completed. Credit:
ABOUT THIS IMAGE: This graphic illustrates how a vibrant, star-forming galaxy quickly transforms
into a sedate galaxy composed of old stars. The scenario begins when two galaxies merge
(Panel 1),funneling a large amount of gas into the central region. The gas compresses, sparking a firestorm of star birth,
(Panel 2) which blows out most of the remaining star-forming gas
.(Panel 3). Devoid of its fuel, the galaxy settles into a quiet existence, composed of aging stars Image Type: Illustration Illustration Credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI) Science Credit: P. Sell (Texas Tech University)
Fermi observations suggest possible years-long cyclic changes in gamma-ray emission from the blazar PG 1553+113.
The graph shows Fermi Large Area Telescope data from August 2008 to July 2015 for gamma rays with energies above 100 million electron volts (MeV).
For comparison, visible light ranges between 2 and 3 electron volts. Vertical lines on data points are error bars.
Background: One possible explanation for the gamma-ray cycle is an oscillation of the jet produced by the gravitational pull
of a second massive black hole, seen at top left in this artist�s rendering.
Image credits: NASA�s Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab.
Images from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). Credit: NASA/ESA/S. Beckwith (STScI)/HUDF Team
This video gives a close-up view of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region, a tiny but much-studied region in the constellation of Fornax, as observed with the MUSE instrument on ESO�s Very Large Telescope. But this rich and colourful picture only gives a very partial view of the power of the MUSE data, which also provide a spectrum for each pixel in the picture. This data set has allowed astronomers not only to measure distances for far more of these galaxies than before � a total of 1600 � but also to find out much more about each of them. Surprisingly 72 new galaxies were found that had eluded deep imaging with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. More information and download options:
Astronomers using the MUSE instrument on ESO�s Very Large Telescope in Chile have conducted the deepest spectroscopic survey ever. They focused on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, measuring distances and properties of 1600 very faint galaxies including 72 galaxies that have never been detected before, even by Hubble itself. This wealth of new information is giving astronomers insight into star formation in the early Universe, and allows them to study the motions and other properties of early galaxies � made possible by MUSE�s unique spectroscopic capabilities. This short ESOcast Light gives a quick overview of this important data set. More information and download options: Subscribe to ESOcast in iTunes! Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: Watch more ESOcast episodes: :Find out how to view and contribute subtitles for the ESOcast in multiple languages, or translate this video on YouTube Credit: ESO Editing: Nico Bartmann Web and technical support: Mathias Andr� and Raquel Yumi Shida Written by: Rosa Jesse, Nicole Shearer and Richard Hook Music: Music written and performed by: tonelabs Footage and photos: ESO, Mark Swinbank, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, M. Fumagalli, L. Cal�ada, MUSE HUDF collaboration Directed by: Nico Bartmann Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) SHOW LESS
A mosaic of telescopic images showing the galaxies of the Virgo Supercluster. Credit: NASA/Rogelio Bernal Andreo
Orbits of galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Credit: Brent Tully.
There's a strange place in the sky where everything is attracted. And unfortunately, it's on the other side of the Milky Way, so we can't see it. What could be doing all this attracting?
Superclusters � regions of space that are densely packed with galaxies � are the biggest structures in the Universe. But scientists have struggled to define exactly where one supercluster ends and another begins. Now, a team based in Hawaii has come up with a new technique that maps the Universe according to the flow of galaxies across space. Redrawing the boundaries of the cosmic map, they redefine our home supercluster and name it Laniakea, which means �immeasurable heaven� in Hawaiian. : Read the research paper Read Nature's news story: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License SHOW LESS
The galaxy clusters Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, MACS J1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, Abell 370. Credit: NASA, ESA, STScI, and the HFF team
Images of the MACS J0416.1�2403 and Abell 2744 galaxy clusters, taken as part of the Hubble Frontier Fields program. Credit: NASA/ESA/HST Frontier Fields team (STScI)
Color view of M31 (The Andromeda Galaxy), with M32 (a satellite galaxy) shown to the lower left. Credit and copyright: Terry Hancock.
Gaia�s view of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Click here for further details, full credits, and larger versions of the image. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC
Gaia�s view of the Andromeda galaxy. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC
It�s relatively easy for galaxies to make stars. Start out with a bunch of random blobs of gas and dust. Typically those blobs will be pretty warm. To turn them into stars, you have to cool them off. By dumping all their heat in the form of radiation, they can compress. Dump more heat, compress more. Repeat for a million years or so.
This composite image shows the central regions of the nearby Circinus galaxy, located about 12 million light years away. Data from NASA�s Chandra X-ray Observatory is shown in blue and data from the Hubble Space telescope is shown in yellow, red, cyan, and light blue.
Full podcast episodes: Follow on Twitter: Like on Facebook: How do we measure the expansion history of the universe? Why are supernovae so dang useful? Come on, what�s with this �dark energy� business? I discuss these questions and more in today�s Ask a Spaceman! Support the show: All episodes: Follow on Twitter: : Like on Facebook Watch on YouTube: Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, physics, and cosmology coming to #AskASpaceman for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE! Big thanks to my top Patreon supporters this month: Mathieu B., Justin G., Tim F., Helge B., Alan M., Tim R., Ray S., Michael C., Bill S., Lars H., David C., Silvan W., David B., Kevin O., Justin R., Jessica K., James L., and Michael Z.! Music by Jason Grady and Nick Bain. Thanks to WCBE Radio for hosting the recording session, Greg Mobius for producing, and Cathy Rinella for editing. Hosted by Paul M. Sutter, astrophysicist at The Ohio State University, Chief Scientist at COSI Science Center, and the one and only Agent to the Stars Category Subscribe: Follow: on Twitter Support: on Patreon Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology coming for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE!
It allowed us to spot auroras on Saturn and planets orbiting distant suns. It permitted astronomers to see galaxies in the early stages of formation, and look back to some of the earliest periods in the Universe. It also measured the distances to Cepheid variable stars more accurately than ever before, which helped astrophysicists constrain how fast the Universe is expanding (the Hubble Constant).
Images from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). Credit: NASA/ESA/S. Beckwith (STScI)/HUDF Team
The first ABYSS HUDF mosaic. Credit: Borlaff (et al)/ABYSS/IAC
Search 9+ 6:01 / 13:21 Awesome pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope [1080p] 1,297,420 views 6.9K 361 SHARE SAVE Orion17 Published on Apr 22, 2012 My Facebook page: Some awesome pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope [Full HD 1080p!!!] Galaxies: 1: Arp 273 (0:36) 2: Messier 66 (4:48) 3: NGC 2841 (7:43) 4: M104 (Sombrero Galaxy) (9:43) 5: Hubble Ultra Deep Field (10:56) Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration SORRY, I HAD TO REPLACE THE SOUNDTRACK, PLAY THEME IN BACKGROUND IF YOU WANT! (Tracklist: 1: Two Steps From Hell - Dark Harbor (0:36) 2: Two Steps From Hell - Freedom Fighters (4:48) 3: Two Steps From Hell - Protectors of the Earth (7:43) 4: Two Steps From Hell - The Truth Unravels II (Alt) (10:56)) Watch it in Full HD 1080p + fullscreen!!!;-) Enjoy it;-) by OrionnebelGalaxie17 Pictures by Nasa Hubble Space Telescope. [1,11gb .mp4] Category Science & Technology Source videos View attributions Music in this video Learn more Listen ad-free with YouTube Premium Song The Daughters of Quiet Minds Artist Stars of the Lid Album And Their Refinement of the Decline Licensed to YouTube by The Orchard Music (on behalf of kranky); CMRRA, Music Sales (Publishing), and 14 Music Rights Societies Song Protectors of the Earth Artist Thomas Bergersen Album Invincible Licensed to YouTube by Epic Elite; HAAWK Publishing, Epic Elite (Music Publishing), LatinAutor, ASCAP, UBEM, LatinAutor - SonyATV, and 19 Music Rights Societies
Universe consciousness Published on Jan 20, 2017 Collection of Hubble images. share and subscribe if you like.... Don't use bad words or your comment will be deleted. Category Entertainment
Artist’s impression of the merging galaxies B14-65666 located 13 billion light-years away. Credit: NAOJ.
This is a composite image of the object B14-65666. Red is dust, oxygen is green, and carbon is blue. White is stars as seen by the Hubble space telescope. Image Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Hashimoto et al.
Since the mid-20th century, scientists have had a pretty good idea of how the Universe came to be. Cosmic expansion and the discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lent credibility to the Big Bang Theory, and the accelerating rate of expansion led to theories about Dark Energy. Still, there is much about the early Universe that scientists still don’t know, which requires that they rely on simulations on cosmic evolution.
The formation of a single massive galaxy through time, from early cosmic epochs until the present day, in the TNG50 cosmic simulation. The main panel shows the density of the cosmic gas (high in white, low in black). Insets show large-scale dark matter and then gas (lower left), and small-scale stellar and gaseous distributions (lower right). This TNG50 galaxy will be similar in mass and shape to Andromeda (M31) by the time the movie reaches the current epoch. Its progenitor experiences rapid star formation in a turbulent gas reservoir which settles into an ordered disc after a couple of billion years of cosmic evolution. A rather quiet late time assembly history without major mergers allows the galaxy to relax into an equilibrium balance of gas outflows from supernova explosions and gas accretion from its surroundings.
New research suggests that Dark Matter may exist in clumps distributed throughout our universe. Credit: Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics
Pictured M-77 It’s a difficult thing to wrap your head around sometimes. Though it might feel stationary, planet Earth is actually moving at an average velocity of 29.78 km/s (107,200 km/h; 66600 mph). And yet, our planet has nothing on the Sun itself, which travels around the center of our galaxy at a velocity of 220 km/s (792,000 km/h; 492,000 mph).
Mosaic of super spiral galaxy images. Credit: NASA/ESA/P. Ogle/J. DePasquale (STScI) (top row); SDSS/P. Ogle/J. DePasquale (STScI) (bottom row)
Archived NASA images showing “super spiral” galaxies that dwarf our own spiral galaxy, the Milky Way. Credit: SDSS
Distribution of dark matter when the Universe was about 3 billion years old, obtained from a numerical simulation of galaxy formation. Credit: VIRGO Consortium/Alexandre Amblard/ESA
Every once in a while, the Milky Way ejects a star. The evicted star is typically ejected from the chaotic area at the center of the galaxy, where our Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) lives. But at least one of them was ejected from the comparatively calm galactic disk, a discovery that has astronomers rethinking this whole star ejection phenomenon.
The structure of the Milky Way. Image Credit: ESA
A young star, similar to the renegade star PG 1610+062, gets ejected from the Milky Way by a hungry black hole. So long!(Image: © A. IRRGANG, FAU) Astronomers have discovered a bright, young star that is running away from home. Why? What did the star's parents do to deserve this? According to a study published Aug. 6 in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, it's nobody's fault; it seems the young star simply fell in with the wrong crowd — namely, a very hungry black hole.
Monica Valluri and Kohei Hattori tracked a hypervelocity star called LAMOST-HVS1, a hypervelocity star that is closer to the Sun any other. They used one of the Magellan telescopes to measure the star’s velocity and position. Then they joined with other colleagues and combined their data with data from the ESA’s Gaia mission to trace the hypervelocity’s trajectory back to its origin. They were surprised when the origin of the star was not the bulge, but the galactic disk.
Star clusters like the Trapezium cluster in Orion are embedded in gas and dust in the galactic disk and are very difficult to see. There may be a cluster similar to this in the Norma spiral arm, the origin of the hypervelocity star LAMOST-HVS1. Image Credit: By NASA/CXC/Penn State/E.Feigelson & K.Getman et al. Public Domain,
A rogue star is one that has escaped the gravitational pull of its home galaxy. These stars drift through intergalactic space, and so are sometimes called intergalactic stars. Sometimes, when a rogue star is ejected from its galaxy, it drags its binary pair along for the ride.
Artist illustration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra is the most sensitive X-ray telescope ever built. Credit: NASA/CXC/NGST
The Fornax Galaxy Cluster is one of the closest of such groupings beyond our Local Group of galaxies. This new VLT Survey Telescope image shows the central part of the cluster in great detail. At the lower-right is the elegant barred-spiral galaxy NGC 1365 and to the left the big elliptical NGC 1399. Acknowledgement: Aniello Grado and Luca Limatola – Image Credit: By ESO. CC BY 4.0,
An illustration showing a larger star “feeding” on a smaller star. As the larger star gains gaseous matter, it forms a rotating disk. Eventually that disk heats up to tens of millions of degrees and emits x-rays.
Space Fan News is Sponsored by OPT Telescopes and Patreon Patrons: In this episode, NASA has added a really cool new mission that will explore the early universe and it is designed to help astronomers understand how our universe evolved. Earlier this month, NASA has selected a new space mission called SPHEREx which stands for the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization and Ices Explorer. Consider supporting Space Fan News: to ensure you get current space & astronomy news each week! Space Fan News Theme by Stephen Dubois available for download here: Follow DeepAstronomy on Twitter: @DeepAstronomy Like DeepAstronomy on Facebook: Like Space Fan News on Facebook:
This all-sky view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way.
The image is derived from the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, which contains more than 1.5 million galaxies,
and the Point Source Catalog, which holds nearly 500 million stars within the Milky Way.
The galaxies are color coded for distances obtained by various surveys. The nearest sources are blue,
moderately distant sources are green, and red represents the farthest sources.
An artist's conception of an extremely luminous infrared galaxy similar to the ones reported in this paper.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.
Scientists are fairly certain that, one day, our universe will come to an end. Here's how they think this might happen.
Logarithms help us make sense of huge numbers, and in this case, huge distances. Rather than showing all parts of the universe
on a linear scale, each chunk of the circle represents a field of view several orders of magnitude larger than the one before it.
That's why the entire observable universe can fit inside the circle.
The gravitational waves generated during the formation of structures in the universe are shown.
The structures (distribution of masses) are shown as bright dots, gravitational waves by ellipses.
The size of the ellipse is proportional to the amplitude of the wave and its orientation represents its polarization.
Credit: � Ruth Durrer, UNIGE Read more
Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University has proposed a "Ekpyrotic Model" of the Universe
that describes our current universe as arising from a collision of two three-dimensional worlds (branes)
in a space with an extra (fourth) spatial dimension. The proposal is interesting in and of itself,
This is a nice map of the universe in a logarithmic scale by Gott, Juric et al. starting from the Earth interior up to the edge of the visible universe. Credit:Planetary Habitability Laboratory University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo posted Jul 6, 2011, 8:01 AM by Abel Mendez
Artist's impression of the "Black Hole Ultimate Solar System".
Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.
We've found hundreds of exoplanets in the galaxy. But only a few of them have just the right combination of factors to hold life like Earth's. The weather in your hometown is downright uninhabitable. There�s scorching heatwaves, annual tyhpoonic deluges, and snow deep enough to bury a corn silo. The bad news is planet Earth is the only habitable place we know of in the entire Universe. Also, are the Niburians suffering from Niburian made climate change? Only Niburian Al Gore can answer that question. We as a species are interested in habitability for an assortment of reasons, political, financial, humanitarian and scientific. We want to understand how our own climate is changing. How we�ll live in the climate of the future and what we can do to stem the tide of what our carbon consumption causes. There could be agendas to push for cleaner energy sources, or driving politicians towards climate change denial to maintain nefarious financial gain. We also might need a new lilypad to jump to, assuming we can sort out the travel obstacles. The thing that interests me personally the most is, when can I see an alien? The habitable zone, also known as the �Goldilocks Zone�, is the region around a star where the average temperature on a planet allows for liquid water with which to make porridge. It�s that liquid water that we hunt for not only for our future uses, but as an indicator of where alien life could be in the Universe. Problems outside this range are pretty obvious. Too hot, it�s a perpetual steam bath, or it produces separate piles of hydrogen and oxygen. Then your oxygen combines with carbon to form carbon dioxide, and then hydrogen just buggers off into space. This is what happened with Venus. If the planet�s too cold, then bodies of water are solid skating rinks. There could be pockets of liquid water deep beneath the icy surface, but overall, they�re bad places to live. We�ve got this on Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The habitable zone is a rough measurement. It�s a place where liquid water might exist. Unfortunately, it�s not just a simple equation of the distance to the star versus the amount of energy output. The atmosphere of the planet matters a lot. In fact, both Venus and Mars are considered to be within the Solar System�s habitable zone. Venusian atmosphere is so thick with carbon dioxide that it traps energy from the Sun and creates an inhospitable oven of heat that would quickboil any life faster than you can say �pass the garlic butter�. It�s the opposite on Mars. The thin atmosphere won�t trap any heat at all, so the planet is bun-chillingly cold. Upgrade the atmospheres of either planet and you could get worlds which would be perfectly reasonable to live on. Maybe if we could bash them together and we could spill the atmosphere of one onto the other? Tell Blackbolt to ring up Franklin Richards, I have an idea! When we look at other worlds in the Milky Way and wonder if they have life, it�s not enough to just check to see if they�re in the habitable zone. We need to know what shape their atmosphere is in. Astronomers have actually discovered planets located in the habitable zones around other stars, but from what we can tell, they�re probably not places you�d want to live. They�re all orbiting red dwarf stars. It doesn�t sound too bad to live in a red tinted landscape, provided it came with an Angelo Badalamenti soundtrack, red dwarf stars are extremely violent in their youth. They blast out enormous solar flares and coronal mass ejections. These would scour the surface of any planets caught orbiting them close enough for liquid water to be present. There is some hope. After a few hundred million years of high activity, these red dwarf stars settle down and sip away at their fuel reserves of hydrogen for potentially trillions of years. If life can hold on long enough to get through the early stages, it might have a long existence ahead of it. When you�re thinking about a new home among the stars, or trying to seek out new life in the Universe, look for planets in the habitable zone. As we�ve seen, it�s only a rough guideline. You probably want to check out the place first and make sure it�s truly liveable before you commit to a timeshare condo around Gliese 581. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License
Illustration of tightly-packed orbits of Earth-mass planets in orbit around the Sun (in black) vs. around a supermassive black hole (green). Credit: Sean Raymond
J. Michael Shull, Britton D. Smith1, and Charles W. Danforth CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Received 2011 December 6; accepted 2012 September 12; published 2012 October 12
Artist�s impression of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times that of the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser
Close-up of star near a supermassive black hole (artist�s impression). Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser
A simulation of the cosmic web, diffuse tendrils of gas that connect galaxies across the universe. Credit: Illustris Collaboration
The Illustris simulation is the most ambitious computer simulation of our Universe yet performed. The calculation tracks the expansion of the universe, the gravitational pull of matter onto itself, the motion of cosmic gas, as well as the formation of stars and black holes. These physical components and processes are all modeled starting from initial conditions resembling the very young universe 300,000 years after the Big Bang and until the present day, spanning over 13.8 billion years of cosmic evolution. The simulated volume contains tens of thousands of galaxies captured in high-detail, covering a wide range of masses, rates of star formation, shapes, sizes, and with properties that agree well with the galaxy population observed in the real universe. The simulations were run on supercomputers in France, Germany, and the US. The largest was run on 8,192 compute cores, and took 19 million CPU hours. A single state-of-the-art desktop computer would require more than 2000 years to perform this calculation. Find out more at: the illustris project Publication: "Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation", Vogelsberger, Genel, Springel, Torrey, Sijacki, Xu, Snyder, Bird, Nelson, Hernquist, Nature 509, 177-182 (08 May 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13316 Music: moonbooter Institutes: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, University of Cambridge, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, Space Telescope Science Institute
Volume-rendering of the gas distribution taken from a cosmological simulation done with the new moving mesh code AREPO Credit: Mark Vogelsberger, Harvard University Center for Astrophysics Institute for Theory and Computation Simulation Details: Boxsize: (20 Mpc/h)^3 particle number: 512^3 collisionless + 512^3 Voronoi cells computing: Harvard Odyssey cluster code: AREPO by Springel (2010) Reference: "Moving mesh cosmology: numerical techniques and global statistics" Mark Vogelsberger, Debora Sijacki, Dusan Keres, Volker Springel, Lars Hernquist (2011) Website: of Institute for Theory and Computation
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Scientists have created an important new simulation of cosmic evolution. It takes place in a virtual cube 350 million light-years squared, and spans a time period from 12 million years after the Big Bang to the present day, or around 13 billion years' worth of cosmic evolution. The project, called Illustris, encompasses over 12 billion data points to track the rise and evolution of some 50,000 galaxies. The simulation used a total of 8,000 processors, the equivalent of 2,000 years of processing time on a standard desktop computer. The run created half-petabyte of information. The end result is a model that not only recreates the emergence of stars and galaxies, but the influence of dark matter and the spread of heavy metals throughout the universe.
The layout of the solar system, including the Oort Cloud, on a logarithmic scale. Credit:
Some comets orbit the Sun on a regular basis, but others come in from deep space, a region known as the Oort Cloud. What causes them to make this journey, and will we ever be able to explore the Oort Cloud? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / firstname.lastname@example.org /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is the afterglow of the Big Bang; one of the strongest lines of evidence we have that this event happened. UCLA's Dr. Ned Wright explains.
All-sky data obtained by the ESA�s Planck mission, showing the different wavelenghts. Credit: ESA
The relative sizes of the inner Solar System, Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. (Credit: NASA, William Crochot)
A computer simulation of the distribution of matter in the universe. Orange regions host galaxies; blue structures are gas and dark matter. Credit: TNG Collaboration
This illustration shows the evolution of the Universe, from the Big Bang on the left, to modern times on the right. Credit: NASA
Since telescopes let us look back in time, shouldn't we be able to see all the way back to the very beginning of time itself? To the moment of the Big Bang? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / email@example.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001
This video takes the viewer on a journey to the globular cluster NGC 6752. The final view, from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows the bright stars of the cluster, as well as a collection of faint stars; these faint stars are actually part of a background galaxy, which was discovered accidentally by astronomers studying the cluster itself. The galaxy is about 30 million light-years away, is classified as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy and has been nicknamed Bedin 1, after the principal investigator. More information and download options: Credit: Credits: Risinger, DSS, Hubble, Damian Peach Music: Astral Electronic
Artist's impression of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a bar. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESO/R. Hurt
Schematic diagram showing two stages of star formation in the Milky Way galaxy according to Noguchi. Credit: M. Noguchi/Nature/M. Haywood et al. (2016)/ reproduced with permission � ESO
Model prediction for three different regions of the Milky Way. Credit: M. Noguchi/Nature/M. Haywood et al. (2016)/reproduced with permission � ESO
Star density map, created from the second data release of ESA�s Gaia mission. Credit: Galaxy Map / K. Jardine
ESA�s Gaia is currently on a five-year mission to map the stars of the Milky Way. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab; background: ESO/S. Brunier.
Map of the Milky Way within 3000 parsec of Earth as created by Kevin Jardine. Credit: Galaxy Map/Kevin Jardine.
This animation uses 3D star and dust density meshes available in the latest version of Gaia Sky to animate a journey through the Milky Way. The animation also includes HII regions and covers a region within 3000 parsecs (about 10 thousand light years) from the Sun. (Twitter: @galaxy_map), Meshes produced by Galaxy Map The star density data is taken from Data Release 2 of the European Space Agency's Gaia astrometry satellite. The dust data is from: Lallement, R.; Capitanio, L.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Danielski, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Vergely, J. L.; Elyajouri, M.; Arenou, F.; Leclerc, N. 3D maps of interstellar dust in the Local Arm: using Gaia, 2MASS and APOGEE-DR14 You can read more about the map in this blog post: This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC,...). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.
An interactive version of this map is also available as part of Gaia Sky, a real-time, 3D astronomy visualization software that was developed for the Gaia mission at the University of Heidelberg�s Astronomisches Rechen-Institut.
In June of 2017, NASA’s Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was installed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this instrument is to provide high-precision measurements of neutron stars and other super-dense objects that are on the verge of collapsing into black holes. NICER is also be the first instrument designed to test technology that will use pulsars as navigation beacons.
This image of the whole sky shows 22 months of X-ray data recorded by NASA’s Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) payload aboard the International Space Station during its nighttime slews between targets. Credits: NASA/NICER
The NICER payload, shown here on the outside of the International Space Station. Credit: NASA
Our planet is part of the larger structure of the Solar System, shaped and made stable by the force of gravity. Our Solar System is gravitationally bound to the Milky Way galaxy, along with hundreds of millions of other solar systems. And our galaxy is also part of a larger structure, where not only gravity, but the expansion of the Universe, shapes and molds that structure. For regular Universe Today readers, none of that is news.
Superclusters – regions of space that are densely packed with galaxies – are the biggest structures in the Universe. But scientists have struggled to define exactly where one supercluster ends and another begins. Now, a team based in Hawaii has come up with a new technique that maps the Universe according to the flow of galaxies across space. Redrawing the boundaries of the cosmic map, they redefine our home supercluster and name it Laniakea, which means ‘immeasurable heaven’ in Hawaiian. Read the research paper: Read Nature's news story: Caption author (Spanish) Margarita Villegas
Image of the large-scale structure of the Universe, showing filaments and voids within the cosmic structure. Credit: Millennium Simulation Project
Local Group and nearest galaxies. The photos of galaxies are not to scale. Local Group of galaxies, including the massive members Messier 31 (Andromeda Galaxy) and Milky Way, as well as other nearby galaxies. Credit:Antonio Ciccolella - Own work
We talked about the biggest structures in the Universe, but what about the opposite? The biggest empty spaces in the Universe, the cosmic voids that separate the clusters of galaxies. Check out our interview with Paul M. Sutter, a specialist on cosmic voids: Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / firstname.lastname@example.org /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”
The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies (PDF)
R. Brent Tully1 , Helene Courtois2 , Yehuda Hoffman3 & Daniel Pomarède4