Mission to the Universe

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Introduction. To the Universe

Daily News about The Galaxies

Daily News about Galaxies

the sounds of the Universe

Ian Bennett Published on Sep 2, 2012

Info graphics of the Univerese!.

Information on the Universe.

Information on the Birth of the universe.

Information on the Evolution of the universe.

Information on Life in the Universe.



Intergalactic Colonization

We often discuss the notion of settling the galaxy but do we need to stop there? This episode will examine the additional difficulties with traveling between galaxies and ask just how far we might be able to journey even without faster than light travel. Visit our Website: Join the Facebook Group: Support the Channel on Patreon: To help us grow your SFIA community, follow on Twitter and RT our future content. Visit the sub-reddit: Listen or Download the audio of this episode from Soundcloud: Cover Art by Jakub Grygier: Graphics Team: Edward Nardella Jeremy Jozwik Jarred Eagley Justin Dixon Jeremy Jozwik Katie Byrne Kris Holland/Mafic Studios: http://www.maficstudios.com Luuk Warringa Misho Yordanov Murat Mamkegh Nick Talmers Nieuwoudt Pierre Demet Sergio Botero Stefan Blandin Script Editing: Andy Popescu Connor Hogan Edward Nardella Eustratius Graham Gregory Leal Jefferson Eagley Keith Blockus Luca de Rosa Mark Warburton Michael Gusevsky Mitch Armstrong MolbOrg Naomi Kern Philip Baldock Sigmund Kopperud Steve Cardon Tiffany Penner Music Markus Junnikkala, "Always tell me the odds" Kai Engel, "Endless Story about Sun and Moon" A.J. Prasad, "Cold Shadow" Aerium, "Fifth Star of Aldebaran" Sergey Cheremisinov, "Labyrinth" Markus Junnikkala, "Memory of Earth Brandow Liew, "Into the Storm"

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Some observatories, Observing the Universe!

The Square Kilometer Telescope proposal

The Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millineter Array (ALMA).

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

Published on Dec 2, 2015 Longer version Category Education License Standard YouTube License


Artist's impression of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a bar. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESO/R. Hurt

Artist�s view of the Milky Way with the location of the Sun and the star forming region at the opposite side in the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm. Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF; Robert Hurt, NASA.

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Traveling to the Stars!!!!!!

Mission to the Universe from Space plama.com

The ship from the movie INTERSTELLAR

Here's what we would have to do to reach a star in less than a hundred years.
Source SPACE.com: All about our solar system, outer space and exploration

Going Interstellar

Published on Feb 11, 2016 Imagine getting to Mars in just 3 days� or putting points beyond our solar system within our reach. New propulsion technologies could one day take us to these cosmic destinations making space travel truly interstellar! NASA 360 joins Professor Philip Lubin, University of California Santa Barbara, as he discusses his NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) for energy propulsion for interstellar exploration. To view "A Roadmap to Interstellar Flight" (cited in the video) visit: This video was developed from a live recording at the 2015 NIAC Fall Symposium in October, 2015. To watch the full original talk please visit: This video represents a research study within the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program. NIAC is a visionary and far-reaching aerospace program, one that has the potential to create breakthrough technologies for possible future space missions. However, such early stage technology development may never become actual NASA missions. For more information about NIAC, visit: Category People & Blogs License Standard YouTube License

A Proposal for an Instellar Spaceship

Image: A Bussard ramjet in flight, as imagined for ESA’s Innovative Technologies from Science Fiction project. Credit: ESA/Manchu.

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Our Milky Way Galaxy

Hubble Data Help Show How Milky Way Galaxy Got Its Spiral Shape

Latest Milky Way Map in 3D


The FUGIN project used the 45 meter Nobeyama radio telescope in Japan to produce the most detailed radio wave map yet of the Milky Way. Top: Three color (false color) radio map of the Milky Way (l=10-50 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. Red, green, and blue represent the radio intensities of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. Second Line: Infrared image of the same region obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Red, green, and blue represent the intensities of 24?m, 8?m, and 5.8?m radio waves respectively. Top Zoom-In: Three color radio map of the Milky Way (l=12-22 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. The colors are the same as the top image. Lower-Left Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the W51 region. The colors are the same as the top image.Lower-Right Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the M17 region. The colors are the same as the top image. Image: NAOJ/NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Nobeyama 45m radio telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan. Image:NAOJ

Starscape photograph taken at Nobeyama Radio Observatory by Norikazu Okabe. The FUGIN observation region (l=10-50 deg) is marked. Credit: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

An artist�s image showing the major features of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech, ESO, J. Hurt

Totally Spectacular Flyover Through The Veil Nebula

The Hubble Space Telescope took a new image of the Veil Nebula, a supernova remnant from a star that exploded 8,000 years ago, and made this truly spectacular flyover visualisation of the beautiful ripple in space that you can see below. In the 3D visualisation, red is sulphur, green is hydrogen and blue is oxygen.

Amateur Astronomer Chases Down Barnard�s Star � You Can Too!
by BOB KING on SEPTEMBER 17, 2015

9-year-animation of Barnard�s Star from 2007 to July 2015 as it tracked north through Ophiuchus at the rate of 10.3 arc seconds per year. Amateur Rick Johnson photographed it once each year to creater the movie. You can watch the same thing in your telescope if you�re patient! Credit: Rick Johnson

Cool, Dim Dwarf Star is Magnetic Powerhouse; The red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546.

Animation of artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks

Artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks

Visible Light from a Black Hole Spotted by Telescope, a First by Charles Q. Choi, Space.com Contributor | January 06, 2016 01:01pm ET

For the first time, astronomers have seen dim flickers of visible light from near a black hole,
researchers with an international science team said. In fact, the light could be visible to anyone with a moderate-size telescope.

NASA Telescopes Detect Jupiter-Like Storm on Small Star Dec 11, 2015

- See more

This illustration shows a cool star, called W1906+40, marked by a raging storm near one of its poles.
The storm is thought to be similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Scientists discovered it
using NASA�s Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech - See more


The Milky Way galaxy, perturbed by the tidal interaction with a dwarf galaxy, as predicted by N-body simulations. The locations of the observed stars above and below the disk, which are used to test the perturbation scenario, are indicated. Credit: T. Mueller/C. Laporte/NASA/JPL-Caletch

Artist�s impression of the Milky Way Galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)

Computer model of the Milky Way and its smaller neighbor, the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Credit: Tollerud, Purcell and Bullock/UC Irvine

360-degree panorama view of the Milky Way (an assembled mosaic of photographs) by ESO. Credit: ESO/S. Brunier

This is the Deepest View of the Hot, Energetic Universe

The eRosita X-ray telescope has revealed its first all-sky survey, captured over six months by rotating continuously. The result? This map containing over one million objects across the hot, energetic universe. Within the Milky Way, eROSITA captured ancient white dwarves, supernova remnants, stars with hot, active coronae, neighboring galaxies like the Magellanic Clouds. Mara Salvato, the lead scientist at MPE said that they all eagerly await eROSITA'S complete, all-sky map. Previously, telescopes have measured the sky at other wavelengths and the new X-ray images can match those discoveries. Predehl describes the stunning images as a 'wealth of detail.'

Credit: Amaze Labs

eROSITA's all sky x-ray survey

Breathtaking new map of the X-ray Universe BERLIN, June 19, 2020: Behold the hot, energetic Universe. A German-Russian space telescope has just acquired a breakthrough map of the sky that traces the heavens in X-rays. The image records a lot of the violent action in the cosmos - instances where matter is being accelerated, heated and shredded. Feasting black holes, exploding stars, and searingly hot gas. The data comes from the eRosita instrument mounted on Spektr-RG . This orbiting telescope was launched in July last year and despatched to an observing position some 1.5 million km from Earth. Once commissioned and declared fully operational in December, it was left to slowly rotate and scan the depths of space. eRosita's first all-sky data-set, represented in the image at the top of this page, was completed only last week. It records over a million sources of X-rays.

One of Our Best Views of the Supermassive Black Hole at the Heart of the Milky Way

Top left: simulation of Sgr A* at 86 GHz without interstellar scattering. Top right: simulation with interstellar scattering. Bottom right: observed image of Sgr A*. Bottom left: observed image of Sgr A* after removing the effects of interstellar scattering. Credit: S. Issaoun, M. Mo?cibrodzka, Radboud University/ M. D. Johnson, CfA

This artist�s concept shows a �feeding,� or active, supermassive black hole with a jet streaming outward at nearly the speed of light. Such active black holes are often found at the hearts of elliptical galaxies. If a jet happens to shine at Earth, the object is called a blazar. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

An artist�s impression of the accretion disc around the supermassive black hole that powers an active galaxy. Astronomers want to know if the energy radiated from our galaxy�s supermassive black hole is caused by jets of material shooting away from the hole, or by the accretion disk of swirling material near the hole. Credit: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital

The Global Millimeter VLBI Array, joined by ALMA. Credit: S. Issaoun, Radboud University/ D. Pesce, CfA

Researchers using the Event Horizon Telescope hope to generate images like this of supermassive black hole Sag. A�s event horizon. Image Credit: EHT.

This is the Milky Way’s Magnetic Field

A representation of how our Galaxy would look in the sky if we could see magnetic fields. The plane of the Galaxy runs horizontally through the middle, and the Galactic centre direction is the middle of the map. Red–pink colours show increasing Galactic magnetic field strengths where the direction is pointing towards the Earth. Blue–purple colours show increasing Galactic magnetic field strengths where the direction is pointing away from the Earth. The background shows the signal reconstructed using sources outside our Galaxy. The points show the current measurements for pulsars. The squares show the measurements from this work using LOFAR pulsar observations. Image Credit: Sobey et al, 2019.

Dr. Sobey chilling in a telescope. Image Credit: CSIRO

Artist’s impression of the 5km diameter central core of Square Kilometre Array (SKA) antennas. Image Credit: SPDO/TDP/DRAO/Swinburne Astronomy Productions – SKA Project Development Office and Swinburne Astronomy Productions

Lofar interactive map

LOFAR sites are spread around Europe, with the concentrated central core in the Netherlands. Image Credit: LOFAR

An illustration of a pulsar. Pulsars emit electromagnetic energy along the magnetic axis. Image Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab

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News Release Number: STScI-2016-04 Monstrous Cloud Boomerangs Back to Our Galaxy - January 28, 2016

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Black Holes and Dense stars in the Universe

Black Hole Infographic

10 Amazing Facts About Black Holes by Elizabeth Howell on January 22, 2015

An artists illustration of the central engine of a Quasar.
These ?Quasi-stellar Objects? QSOs are now recognized as the super massive black holes
at the center of emerging galaxies in the early Universe. (Photo Credit: NASA)
Imagine matter packed so densely that nothing can escape. Not a moon, not a planet and not even light.
That?s what black holes are ? a spot where gravity?s pull is huge, ending up being dangerous for anything that accidentally strays by.

Black Holes

Computer-Simulated Image of a Supermassive Black Hole

This computer-simulated image shows a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy.
The black region in the center represents the black hole�s event horizon, where no light can escape the massive object�s gravitational grip.
The black hole�s powerful gravity distorts space around it like a funhouse mirror. Light from background stars is stretched and smeared
as the stars skim by the black hole. Astronomers have uncovered a near-record breaking supermassive black hole, weighing 17 billion suns,
in an unlikely place: in the center of a galaxy in a sparsely populated area of the universe.
The observations, made by NASA�s Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini Telescope in Hawaii, may
indicate that these monster objects may be more common than once thought.

Inside the heart of a Hellish Neutron Star

Stellar Evolutiuon

Saved from Harvard University Carol Tavares saved to The Universe Stellar Evolution Infographic: The rate of evolution and the ultimate fate of a star depends on its mass. (Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)


This artist�s impression shows the red supergiant star. Using ESO�s Very Large Telescope Interferometer, an international team of astronomers have constructed the most detailed image ever of this, or any star other than the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Artist�s impression of the Earth scorched by our Sun as it enters its Red Giant Branch phase. Credit: Wikimedia Commons/Fsgregs

An illustration of the structure of the Sun and a red giant star, showing their convective zones. These are the granular zones in the outer layers of the stars. Credit: ESO

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Researchers at the CSIRO have managed to pinpoint the location of an FRB for the first time, yielding valuable information about our universe. Credit:

Image showing the field of view of the Parkes radio telescope (left) and zoom-ins on the area where the signal came from (left).
Credit: D. Kaplan (UWM), E. F. Keane (SKAO).

Redshift occurs as a result of an object moving away at relativistic speeds (a portion of the speed of light).
For decades, scientists have been using it to determine how fast other galaxies are moving away from our own,
and hence the rate of expansion of the Universe. Relying on optical data obtained by the Subaru telescope,
the CSIRO team was able to obtain both the dispersion and the redshift data from this signal.

A fast radio burst detected in 2012 by the Arecibo Observatory has scientists searching for its source.
Credit and Copyright: Danielle Futselaar

The NSF�s Arecibo Observatory, which is located in Puerto Rico, is the world's second largest radio telescope Credit: NAIC

The Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. Credit: Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis

Artists impression of the SKA-mid dishes in Africa shows how they may eventually look when completed. Credit:

Radio signals converted to sounds from Space!

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G A L A X I E S !!!!!


Warp into a stellar nursey 3,000 light years away

The Party's Over for These Youthful Compact Galaxies

ABOUT THIS IMAGE: This graphic illustrates how a vibrant, star-forming galaxy quickly transforms
into a sedate galaxy composed of old stars. The scenario begins when two galaxies merge
(Panel 1),funneling a large amount of gas into the central region. The gas compresses, sparking a firestorm of star birth,
(Panel 2) which blows out most of the remaining star-forming gas
.(Panel 3). Devoid of its fuel, the galaxy settles into a quiet existence, composed of aging stars Image Type: Illustration Illustration Credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI) Science Credit: P. Sell (Texas Tech University)

The Largest Galaxy in the Universe: IC 1101

NASA�s Fermi finds hints of gamma-ray cycle in active galaxy

Fermi observations suggest possible years-long cyclic changes in gamma-ray emission from the blazar PG 1553+113.
The graph shows Fermi Large Area Telescope data from August 2008 to July 2015 for gamma rays with energies above 100 million electron volts (MeV).
For comparison, visible light ranges between 2 and 3 electron volts. Vertical lines on data points are error bars.
Background: One possible explanation for the gamma-ray cycle is an oscillation of the jet produced by the gravitational pull
of a second massive black hole, seen at top left in this artist�s rendering.
Image credits: NASA�s Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab.


Images from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). Credit: NASA/ESA/S. Beckwith (STScI)/HUDF Team

This video gives a close-up view of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region, a tiny but much-studied region in the constellation of Fornax, as observed with the MUSE instrument on ESO�s Very Large Telescope. But this rich and colourful picture only gives a very partial view of the power of the MUSE data, which also provide a spectrum for each pixel in the picture. This data set has allowed astronomers not only to measure distances for far more of these galaxies than before � a total of 1600 � but also to find out much more about each of them. Surprisingly 72 new galaxies were found that had eluded deep imaging with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. More information and download options:

Astronomers using the MUSE instrument on ESO�s Very Large Telescope in Chile have conducted the deepest spectroscopic survey ever. They focused on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, measuring distances and properties of 1600 very faint galaxies including 72 galaxies that have never been detected before, even by Hubble itself. This wealth of new information is giving astronomers insight into star formation in the early Universe, and allows them to study the motions and other properties of early galaxies � made possible by MUSE�s unique spectroscopic capabilities. This short ESOcast Light gives a quick overview of this important data set. More information and download options: Subscribe to ESOcast in iTunes! Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: Watch more ESOcast episodes: :Find out how to view and contribute subtitles for the ESOcast in multiple languages, or translate this video on YouTube Credit: ESO Editing: Nico Bartmann Web and technical support: Mathias Andr� and Raquel Yumi Shida Written by: Rosa Jesse, Nicole Shearer and Richard Hook Music: Music written and performed by: tonelabs Footage and photos: ESO, Mark Swinbank, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, M. Fumagalli, L. Cal�ada, MUSE HUDF collaboration Directed by: Nico Bartmann Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) SHOW LESS


A mosaic of telescopic images showing the galaxies of the Virgo Supercluster. Credit: NASA/Rogelio Bernal Andreo

Orbits of galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Credit: Brent Tully.

There's a strange place in the sky where everything is attracted. And unfortunately, it's on the other side of the Milky Way, so we can't see it. What could be doing all this attracting?

Superclusters � regions of space that are densely packed with galaxies � are the biggest structures in the Universe. But scientists have struggled to define exactly where one supercluster ends and another begins. Now, a team based in Hawaii has come up with a new technique that maps the Universe according to the flow of galaxies across space. Redrawing the boundaries of the cosmic map, they redefine our home supercluster and name it Laniakea, which means �immeasurable heaven� in Hawaiian. : Read the research paper Read Nature's news story: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License SHOW LESS

The galaxy clusters Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, MACS J1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, Abell 370. Credit: NASA, ESA, STScI, and the HFF team

Images of the MACS J0416.1�2403 and Abell 2744 galaxy clusters, taken as part of the Hubble Frontier Fields program. Credit: NASA/ESA/HST Frontier Fields team (STScI)


Color view of M31 (The Andromeda Galaxy), with M32 (a satellite galaxy) shown to the lower left. Credit and copyright: Terry Hancock.

Gaia�s view of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Click here for further details, full credits, and larger versions of the image. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC

Gaia�s view of the Andromeda galaxy. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC

New Research Reveals How Galaxies Stay Hot and Bothered

It�s relatively easy for galaxies to make stars. Start out with a bunch of random blobs of gas and dust. Typically those blobs will be pretty warm. To turn them into stars, you have to cool them off. By dumping all their heat in the form of radiation, they can compress. Dump more heat, compress more. Repeat for a million years or so.

This composite image shows the central regions of the nearby Circinus galaxy, located about 12 million light years away. Data from NASA�s Chandra X-ray Observatory is shown in blue and data from the Hubble Space telescope is shown in yellow, red, cyan, and light blue.

The Awesome Power of the Quasar - Ask a Spaceman!

Full podcast episodes: Follow on Twitter: Like on Facebook: How do we measure the expansion history of the universe? Why are supernovae so dang useful? Come on, what�s with this �dark energy� business? I discuss these questions and more in today�s Ask a Spaceman! Support the show: All episodes: Follow on Twitter: : Like on Facebook Watch on YouTube: Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, physics, and cosmology coming to #AskASpaceman for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE! Big thanks to my top Patreon supporters this month: Mathieu B., Justin G., Tim F., Helge B., Alan M., Tim R., Ray S., Michael C., Bill S., Lars H., David C., Silvan W., David B., Kevin O., Justin R., Jessica K., James L., and Michael Z.! Music by Jason Grady and Nick Bain. Thanks to WCBE Radio for hosting the recording session, Greg Mobius for producing, and Cathy Rinella for editing. Hosted by Paul M. Sutter, astrophysicist at The Ohio State University, Chief Scientist at COSI Science Center, and the one and only Agent to the Stars Category Subscribe: Follow: on Twitter Support: on Patreon Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology coming for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE!

Astronomers Process Hubble’s Deepest Image to get Even More Data,
and Show that Some Galaxies are Twice as big as Previously Believed

It allowed us to spot auroras on Saturn and planets orbiting distant suns. It permitted astronomers to see galaxies in the early stages of formation, and look back to some of the earliest periods in the Universe. It also measured the distances to Cepheid variable stars more accurately than ever before, which helped astrophysicists constrain how fast the Universe is expanding (the Hubble Constant).

Images from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). Credit: NASA/ESA/S. Beckwith (STScI)/HUDF Team

The first ABYSS HUDF mosaic. Credit: Borlaff (et al)/ABYSS/IAC

Videos on Galaxies from the HUbble Telescope!!!

Awesome pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope [1080p]

Search 9+ 6:01 / 13:21 Awesome pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope [1080p] 1,297,420 views 6.9K 361 SHARE SAVE Orion17 Published on Apr 22, 2012 My Facebook page: Some awesome pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope [Full HD 1080p!!!] Galaxies: 1: Arp 273 (0:36) 2: Messier 66 (4:48) 3: NGC 2841 (7:43) 4: M104 (Sombrero Galaxy) (9:43) 5: Hubble Ultra Deep Field (10:56) Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration SORRY, I HAD TO REPLACE THE SOUNDTRACK, PLAY THEME IN BACKGROUND IF YOU WANT! (Tracklist: 1: Two Steps From Hell - Dark Harbor (0:36) 2: Two Steps From Hell - Freedom Fighters (4:48) 3: Two Steps From Hell - Protectors of the Earth (7:43) 4: Two Steps From Hell - The Truth Unravels II (Alt) (10:56)) Watch it in Full HD 1080p + fullscreen!!!;-) Enjoy it;-) by OrionnebelGalaxie17 Pictures by Nasa Hubble Space Telescope. [1,11gb .mp4] Category Science & Technology Source videos View attributions Music in this video Learn more Listen ad-free with YouTube Premium Song The Daughters of Quiet Minds Artist Stars of the Lid Album And Their Refinement of the Decline Licensed to YouTube by The Orchard Music (on behalf of kranky); CMRRA, Music Sales (Publishing), and 14 Music Rights Societies Song Protectors of the Earth Artist Thomas Bergersen Album Invincible Licensed to YouTube by Epic Elite; HAAWK Publishing, Epic Elite (Music Publishing), LatinAutor, ASCAP, UBEM, LatinAutor - SonyATV, and 19 Music Rights Societies

Hubble images 4k

Universe consciousness Published on Jan 20, 2017 Collection of Hubble images. share and subscribe if you like.... Don't use bad words or your comment will be deleted. Category Entertainment


The Earliest Example of Merging Galaxies Ever Found (June 29, 2019)

Artist’s impression of the merging galaxies B14-65666 located 13 billion light-years away. Credit: NAOJ.

You’re Looking at Spiral Galaxies, Already Forming When the Universe was Just a Baby

With Thanks to the Alpine Project

ALMA Large Program to INvestigate at Early times (ALPINE), a multiwavelength survey that examined galaxies that were around when the Universe was less than 1.5 billion years old.

Observatories that make up the Alpine Project

This is a composite image of the object B14-65666. Red is dust, oxygen is green, and carbon is blue. White is stars as seen by the Hubble space telescope. Image Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Hashimoto et al.


“Big Three Dragons”: a z = 7.15 Lyman Break Galaxy Detected in [Oiii] 88 µm, [Cii] 158 µm, and Dust Continuum with ALMA (PDF)

Watch a Simulation of a Galaxy, From the Big Bang Until the Present Day

Since the mid-20th century, scientists have had a pretty good idea of how the Universe came to be. Cosmic expansion and the discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lent credibility to the Big Bang Theory, and the accelerating rate of expansion led to theories about Dark Energy. Still, there is much about the early Universe that scientists still don’t know, which requires that they rely on simulations on cosmic evolution.

Formation of a single massive galaxy through time in the TNG50 cosmic simulation

The formation of a single massive galaxy through time, from early cosmic epochs until the present day, in the TNG50 cosmic simulation. The main panel shows the density of the cosmic gas (high in white, low in black). Insets show large-scale dark matter and then gas (lower left), and small-scale stellar and gaseous distributions (lower right). This TNG50 galaxy will be similar in mass and shape to Andromeda (M31) by the time the movie reaches the current epoch. Its progenitor experiences rapid star formation in a turbulent gas reservoir which settles into an ordered disc after a couple of billion years of cosmic evolution. A rather quiet late time assembly history without major mergers allows the galaxy to relax into an equilibrium balance of gas outflows from supernova explosions and gas accretion from its surroundings.

New research suggests that Dark Matter may exist in clumps distributed throughout our universe. Credit: Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics

The Most Massive Galaxies Spin More Than Twice as Fast as the Milky Way

Pictured M-77 It’s a difficult thing to wrap your head around sometimes. Though it might feel stationary, planet Earth is actually moving at an average velocity of 29.78 km/s (107,200 km/h; 66600 mph). And yet, our planet has nothing on the Sun itself, which travels around the center of our galaxy at a velocity of 220 km/s (792,000 km/h; 492,000 mph).

Mosaic of super spiral galaxy images. Credit: NASA/ESA/P. Ogle/J. DePasquale (STScI) (top row); SDSS/P. Ogle/J. DePasquale (STScI) (bottom row)

Archived NASA images showing “super spiral” galaxies that dwarf our own spiral galaxy, the Milky Way. Credit: SDSS

Distribution of dark matter when the Universe was about 3 billion years old, obtained from a numerical simulation of galaxy formation. Credit: VIRGO Consortium/Alexandre Amblard/ESA

Astronomers Find a Galaxy Containing Three Supermassive Black Holes at the Center

NGC 6240 is a puzzle to astronomers. For a long time, astronomers thought the galaxy is a result of a merger between two galaxies, and that merger is evident in the galaxy’s form: It has an unsettled appearance, with two nuclei and extensions and loops.

New observations show that NGC 6240 is home to three supermassive black holes, not two. The northern (N) black hole was previously known, and is an active hole. The new observations shows that the southern black hole is actually two holes: S1 and S2. Image Credit: P Weilbacher (AIP), NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration, and A Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University)

A Chandra X-ray Observatory image of NGC 6240 superimposed on a visible light image. Even in x-rays the Southern black hole appears a a single entity. Image Credit: Public Domain,(WIKIPEDIA)

With thanks to the European Southern Observatory and it's MUSE Telescope

Galaxies Like the Milky Way are the Best for Life

Scientists have speculated that given the sheer number of galaxies in our Universe – modern estimates are as high as 2 trillion – that there must be infinite opportunities for life to emerge. It has also been theorized that galaxies (like stars) have habitable zones, where star systems located too close to the core or too far out in the spiral arms will be exposed to too much radiation for life to emerge.

Does Our Galaxy Have a Habitable Zone? Where Life Can Form in the Milky Way

It’s not just our Solar System that has a habitable zone, it turns out our entire galaxy has regions which would be hostile to the formation of life as we know it. Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook:

What Is a Galaxy?

Galaxies are concentrations of stars, gas, dust, and dark matter. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some are fated to collide, like the Milky Way and Andromeda.

Evolution diagram of a galaxy. First the galaxy is dominated by the disk component (left) but active star formation occurs in the huge dust and gas cloud at the center of the galaxy (center). Then the galaxy is dominated by the stellar bulge and becomes an elliptical or lenticular galaxy. Credit: NAOJ

With Thanks to the Space Telescope Science institute

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This Star has been Kicked Out of the Milky Way. It Knows What It Did.

Every once in a while, the Milky Way ejects a star. The evicted star is typically ejected from the chaotic area at the center of the galaxy, where our Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) lives. But at least one of them was ejected from the comparatively calm galactic disk, a discovery that has astronomers rethinking this whole star ejection phenomenon.

The structure of the Milky Way. Image Credit: ESA

via Gfycat

A young star, similar to the renegade star PG 1610+062, gets ejected from the Milky Way by a hungry black hole. So long!(Image: © A. IRRGANG, FAU) Astronomers have discovered a bright, young star that is running away from home. Why? What did the star's parents do to deserve this? According to a study published Aug. 6 in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, it's nobody's fault; it seems the young star simply fell in with the wrong crowd — namely, a very hungry black hole.

Report on Hypervelocity Star PG1610+062
From the Journal the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics

PG 1610+062: a runaway B star challenging classical ejection mechanisms A. Irrgang1 , S. Geier2 , U. Heber1 , T. Kupfer3 , and F. Fürst4,5

Monica Valluri and Kohei Hattori tracked a hypervelocity star called LAMOST-HVS1, a hypervelocity star that is closer to the Sun any other. They used one of the Magellan telescopes to measure the star’s velocity and position. Then they joined with other colleagues and combined their data with data from the ESA’s Gaia mission to trace the hypervelocity’s trajectory back to its origin. They were surprised when the origin of the star was not the bulge, but the galactic disk.

Star clusters like the Trapezium cluster in Orion are embedded in gas and dust in the galactic disk and are very difficult to see. There may be a cluster similar to this in the Norma spiral arm, the origin of the hypervelocity star LAMOST-HVS1. Image Credit: By NASA/CXC/Penn State/E.Feigelson & K.Getman et al. Public Domain,

Astronomers are Finding Binary Pairs of Stars Thrown out of Galaxies Together

A rogue star is one that has escaped the gravitational pull of its home galaxy. These stars drift through intergalactic space, and so are sometimes called intergalactic stars. Sometimes, when a rogue star is ejected from its galaxy, it drags its binary pair along for the ride.

A Star had a Partial Supernova and Kicked Itself Into a High-Speed Journey
Across the Milky Way

Supernovae are some of the most powerful events in the Universe. They’re extremely energetic, luminous explosions that can light up the sky. Astrophysicists have a pretty good idea how they work, and they’ve organized supernovae into two broad categories: they’re the end state for massive stars that explode near the end of their lives, or they’re white dwarfs that draw gas from a companion which triggers runaway fusion.

Our Sun, and any star with the same mass, will follow a common evolutionary path. Once it leaves the main sequence, after hydrogen burning is complete, it becomes a red giant, then a white dwarf. Image Credit : By Lithopsian – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Artist’s rendition of a white dwarf from the surface of an orbiting exoplanet. Image Credit: Madden/Cornell University

Can You Kill A Star With Iron? Why Iron Isn't Poison to Stars

Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”

An artist’s image of a white dwarf drawing material away from its companion. Image Credit: NASA

Supernova 1994D in Galaxy NGC 4526. Normally, a supernova explosion is visible for months. The afterglow is caused by abundant, radioactive Nickel. But SDSS J1240+6710 produced very little nickel. Image Credit: NASA/ESA, The Hubble Key Project Team and The High-Z Supernova Search Team

Artist illustration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra is the most sensitive X-ray telescope ever built. Credit: NASA/CXC/NGST

The Fornax Galaxy Cluster is one of the closest of such groupings beyond our Local Group of galaxies. This new VLT Survey Telescope image shows the central part of the cluster in great detail. At the lower-right is the elegant barred-spiral galaxy NGC 1365 and to the left the big elliptical NGC 1399. Acknowledgement: Aniello Grado and Luca Limatola – Image Credit: By ESO. CC BY 4.0,

An illustration showing a larger star “feeding” on a smaller star. As the larger star gains gaseous matter, it forms a rotating disk. Eventually that disk heats up to tens of millions of degrees and emits x-rays.

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Mission to the Universe

NASA Selects SPHERE to Study the Early Universe

Space Fan News is Sponsored by OPT Telescopes and Patreon Patrons: In this episode, NASA has added a really cool new mission that will explore the early universe and it is designed to help astronomers understand how our universe evolved. Earlier this month, NASA has selected a new space mission called SPHEREx which stands for the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization and Ices Explorer. Consider supporting Space Fan News: to ensure you get current space & astronomy news each week! Space Fan News Theme by Stephen Dubois available for download here: Follow DeepAstronomy on Twitter: @DeepAstronomy Like DeepAstronomy on Facebook: Like Space Fan News on Facebook:

An Infrared Map of the Universe

This all-sky view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way.
The image is derived from the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, which contains more than 1.5 million galaxies,
and the Point Source Catalog, which holds nearly 500 million stars within the Milky Way.
The galaxies are color coded for distances obtained by various surveys. The nearest sources are blue,
moderately distant sources are green, and red represents the farthest sources.

MOST �OUTRAGEOUS� LUMINOUS GALAXIES EVER OBSERVED in the universe 24 Mar , 2016 by Evan Gough

An artist's conception of an extremely luminous infrared galaxy similar to the ones reported in this paper.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

The Universe is big!!!!

Team simulates the expansion of the Universe

The gravitational waves generated during the formation of structures in the universe are shown.
The structures (distribution of masses) are shown as bright dots, gravitational waves by ellipses.
The size of the ellipse is proportional to the amplitude of the wave and its orientation represents its polarization.
Credit: � Ruth Durrer, UNIGE Read more

THe Ekpyotic Model

Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University has proposed a "Ekpyrotic Model" of the Universe
that describes our current universe as arising from a collision of two three-dimensional worlds (branes)
in a space with an extra (fourth) spatial dimension. The proposal is interesting in and of itself,

History of the Universe

Logarithmic Maps of the Universe

This is a nice map of the universe in a logarithmic scale by Gott, Juric et al. starting from the Earth interior up to the edge of the visible universe. Credit:Planetary Habitability Laboratory University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo posted Jul 6, 2011, 8:01 AM by Abel Mendez

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NASA Selects New Mission to Explore Origins of Universe

Our Position in the Universe & How did the Universe from the Big Bang???

Did Neutrinos Stop The Early Universe From Annihilating Itself?

We can create matter from energy in the lab. Particle accelerators do this all the time. When we do, half of what is created is matter and the other half antimatter. There is a symmetry in physics that requires matter and antimatter to appear in equal amounts. But when we look around the universe, what we see is matter. So how did the big bang create all the matter we see without creating an equal amount of antimatter? The answer could be neutrinos.

Fundamental symmetries in physics. Credit: Flip Tanedo One of the fundamental symmetries in physics is the conservation of charge. The total charge in the universe is zero, and that can’t change. So if you create a charged particle of matter, you must also create a corresponding antimatter particle with the opposite charge. This symmetry is so central to physics that astronomers think the big bang created matter and antimatter in equal amounts. Soon afterward, something must have happened to leave the universe with more matter than antimatter.

Left-handed and right-handed chirality. Credit: Wikipedia Every elementary particle has a rotation-like property known as spin. When a particle is shooting through space, the spin and motion can point along its direction of motion, or opposite to its motion. The former is known as right-handed chirality, while the latter is left-handed. Both matter and antimatter particles can have either chirality, except for the neutrino. Neutrinos are always left-handed, and anti-neutrinos are always right-handed.

How a cosmic phase change could create a matter universe. Credit: R.Hurt/Caltech-JPL, NASA, and ESA, with modifications by Kavli IPMU

Did Neutrinos Stop The Early Universe From Annihilating Itself?

We can create matter from energy in the lab. Particle accelerators do this all the time. When we do, half of what is created is matter and the other half antimatter. There is a symmetry in physics that requires matter and antimatter to appear in equal amounts. But when we look around the universe, what we see is matter. So how did the big bang create all the matter we see without creating an equal amount of antimatter? The answer could be neutrinos. Matter and antimatter are kind of like cosmic twins. For every type of matter particle, there is a corresponding antimatter particle. The main difference between the two is their electric charge. For example, an electron has a negative charge, while the anti-electron (commonly called the positron) has a positive charge. Protons have a positive charge, while anti-protons have a negative one.

Fundamental symmetries in physics. Credit: Flip Tanedo One of the fundamental symmetries in physics is the conservation of charge. The total charge in the universe is zero, and that can’t change. So if you create a charged particle of matter, you must also create a corresponding antimatter particle with the opposite charge. This symmetry is so central to physics that astronomers think the big bang created matter and antimatter in equal amounts. Soon afterward, something must have happened to leave the universe with more matter than antimatter.

Left-handed and right-handed chirality.Credit: Wikipedia Every elementary particle has a rotation-like property known as spin. When a particle is shooting through space, the spin and motion can point along its direction of motion, or opposite to its motion. The former is known as right-handed chirality, while the latter is left-handed. Both matter and antimatter particles can have either chirality, except for the neutrino. Neutrinos are always left-handed, and anti-neutrinos are always right-handed.

How a cosmic phase change could create a matter universe. Credit: R.Hurt/Caltech-JPL, NASA, and ESA, with modifications by Kavli IPMU The idea is that very soon after matter and antimatter appeared in the cosmos, the universe underwent a phase change where more antimatter converted into heavy anti-neutrinos than matter converted into heavy matter neutrinos. The total charge of the universe remained zero, and the matter-antimatter balance is preserved, but what remained was mostly regular matter and heavy anti-neutrinos.

Timeline of the Universe!

Fate of the Universe!!

From futurism.com"

Scientists are fairly certain that, one day, our universe will come to an end. Here's how they think this might happen.

Life Could be Common Across the Universe, Just Not in Our Region

Logarithmic scheme of the observable universe with some of the notable astronomical objects known today. From left to right the celestial bodies are arranged according to their proximity to Earth. In the left border, Earth and near-Earth objects are depicted. In the right border, the most distant observed objects are depicted including GRBs, quasars, supercluster of galaxies and the cosmic microwave background radiation. Celestial bodies appear with enlarged size to appreciate their shape. By Pablo Carlos Budassi - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Logarithms help us make sense of huge numbers, and in this case, huge distances. Rather than showing all parts of the universe
on a linear scale, each chunk of the circle represents a field of view several orders of magnitude larger than the one before it.
That's why the entire observable universe can fit inside the circle.

Double-stranded RNA. Image Credit: By Supyyyy – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Diagram of evolution of the (observable part) of the universe from the Big Bang (left), the CMB-reference afterglow, to the present. Image Credit: By NASA/WMAP Science Team – Original version: NASA; modified by Cherkash, Public Domain,

How Big Is The Universe?

The Universe is big, but how big is it? That all depends on whether the Universe is finite or infinite. Even the word "big" is tough to get clear. Are we talking about the size of the Universe we can see, or the Universe's actual size right now?

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Artist's impression of the "Black Hole Ultimate Solar System".


Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

What Is The Habitable Zone?

We've found hundreds of exoplanets in the galaxy. But only a few of them have just the right combination of factors to hold life like Earth's. The weather in your hometown is downright uninhabitable. There�s scorching heatwaves, annual tyhpoonic deluges, and snow deep enough to bury a corn silo. The bad news is planet Earth is the only habitable place we know of in the entire Universe. Also, are the Niburians suffering from Niburian made climate change? Only Niburian Al Gore can answer that question. We as a species are interested in habitability for an assortment of reasons, political, financial, humanitarian and scientific. We want to understand how our own climate is changing. How we�ll live in the climate of the future and what we can do to stem the tide of what our carbon consumption causes. There could be agendas to push for cleaner energy sources, or driving politicians towards climate change denial to maintain nefarious financial gain. We also might need a new lilypad to jump to, assuming we can sort out the travel obstacles. The thing that interests me personally the most is, when can I see an alien? The habitable zone, also known as the �Goldilocks Zone�, is the region around a star where the average temperature on a planet allows for liquid water with which to make porridge. It�s that liquid water that we hunt for not only for our future uses, but as an indicator of where alien life could be in the Universe. Problems outside this range are pretty obvious. Too hot, it�s a perpetual steam bath, or it produces separate piles of hydrogen and oxygen. Then your oxygen combines with carbon to form carbon dioxide, and then hydrogen just buggers off into space. This is what happened with Venus. If the planet�s too cold, then bodies of water are solid skating rinks. There could be pockets of liquid water deep beneath the icy surface, but overall, they�re bad places to live. We�ve got this on Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The habitable zone is a rough measurement. It�s a place where liquid water might exist. Unfortunately, it�s not just a simple equation of the distance to the star versus the amount of energy output. The atmosphere of the planet matters a lot. In fact, both Venus and Mars are considered to be within the Solar System�s habitable zone. Venusian atmosphere is so thick with carbon dioxide that it traps energy from the Sun and creates an inhospitable oven of heat that would quickboil any life faster than you can say �pass the garlic butter�. It�s the opposite on Mars. The thin atmosphere won�t trap any heat at all, so the planet is bun-chillingly cold. Upgrade the atmospheres of either planet and you could get worlds which would be perfectly reasonable to live on. Maybe if we could bash them together and we could spill the atmosphere of one onto the other? Tell Blackbolt to ring up Franklin Richards, I have an idea! When we look at other worlds in the Milky Way and wonder if they have life, it�s not enough to just check to see if they�re in the habitable zone. We need to know what shape their atmosphere is in. Astronomers have actually discovered planets located in the habitable zones around other stars, but from what we can tell, they�re probably not places you�d want to live. They�re all orbiting red dwarf stars. It doesn�t sound too bad to live in a red tinted landscape, provided it came with an Angelo Badalamenti soundtrack, red dwarf stars are extremely violent in their youth. They blast out enormous solar flares and coronal mass ejections. These would scour the surface of any planets caught orbiting them close enough for liquid water to be present. There is some hope. After a few hundred million years of high activity, these red dwarf stars settle down and sip away at their fuel reserves of hydrogen for potentially trillions of years. If life can hold on long enough to get through the early stages, it might have a long existence ahead of it. When you�re thinking about a new home among the stars, or trying to seek out new life in the Universe, look for planets in the habitable zone. As we�ve seen, it�s only a rough guideline. You probably want to check out the place first and make sure it�s truly liveable before you commit to a timeshare condo around Gliese 581. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Illustration of tightly-packed orbits of Earth-mass planets in orbit around the Sun (in black) vs. around a supermassive black hole (green). Credit: Sean Raymond

Based upon this system.

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Bayron Census


J. Michael Shull, Britton D. Smith1, and Charles W. Danforth CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; michael.shull@colorado.edu, smit1685@msu.edu, charles.danforth@colorado.edu Received 2011 December 6; accepted 2012 September 12; published 2012 October 12

Artist�s impression of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times that of the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Close-up of star near a supermassive black hole (artist�s impression). Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser

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Website of the Illustris Project

the illustris project

A simulation of the cosmic web, diffuse tendrils of gas that connect galaxies across the universe. Credit: Illustris Collaboration

Illustris Simulation: Most detailed simulation of our Universe

The Illustris simulation is the most ambitious computer simulation of our Universe yet performed. The calculation tracks the expansion of the universe, the gravitational pull of matter onto itself, the motion of cosmic gas, as well as the formation of stars and black holes. These physical components and processes are all modeled starting from initial conditions resembling the very young universe 300,000 years after the Big Bang and until the present day, spanning over 13.8 billion years of cosmic evolution. The simulated volume contains tens of thousands of galaxies captured in high-detail, covering a wide range of masses, rates of star formation, shapes, sizes, and with properties that agree well with the galaxy population observed in the real universe. The simulations were run on supercomputers in France, Germany, and the US. The largest was run on 8,192 compute cores, and took 19 million CPU hours. A single state-of-the-art desktop computer would require more than 2000 years to perform this calculation. Find out more at: the illustris project Publication: "Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation", Vogelsberger, Genel, Springel, Torrey, Sijacki, Xu, Snyder, Bird, Nelson, Hernquist, Nature 509, 177-182 (08 May 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13316 Music: moonbooter Institutes: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, University of Cambridge, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, Space Telescope Science Institute

Supercomputer Simulation of the Universe and Galaxies (@ z=2)

Volume-rendering of the gas distribution taken from a cosmological simulation done with the new moving mesh code AREPO Credit: Mark Vogelsberger, Harvard University Center for Astrophysics Institute for Theory and Computation Simulation Details: Boxsize: (20 Mpc/h)^3 particle number: 512^3 collisionless + 512^3 Voronoi cells computing: Harvard Odyssey cluster code: AREPO by Springel (2010) Reference: "Moving mesh cosmology: numerical techniques and global statistics" Mark Vogelsberger, Debora Sijacki, Dusan Keres, Volker Springel, Lars Hernquist (2011) Website: of Institute for Theory and Computation
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Major New Cosmic Simulation: Why it's Significant

Scientists have created an important new simulation of cosmic evolution. It takes place in a virtual cube 350 million light-years squared, and spans a time period from 12 million years after the Big Bang to the present day, or around 13 billion years' worth of cosmic evolution. The project, called Illustris, encompasses over 12 billion data points to track the rise and evolution of some 50,000 galaxies. The simulation used a total of 8,000 processors, the equivalent of 2,000 years of processing time on a standard desktop computer. The run created half-petabyte of information. The end result is a model that not only recreates the emergence of stars and galaxies, but the influence of dark matter and the spread of heavy metals throughout the universe.

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The layout of the solar system, including the Oort Cloud, on a logarithmic scale. Credit:

Probing Oort clouds around Milky Way stars with CMB surveys (PDF)

Some comets orbit the Sun on a regular basis, but others come in from deep space, a region known as the Oort Cloud. What causes them to make this journey, and will we ever be able to explore the Oort Cloud? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

What Is The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation?

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is the afterglow of the Big Bang; one of the strongest lines of evidence we have that this event happened. UCLA's Dr. Ned Wright explains.

All-sky data obtained by the ESA�s Planck mission, showing the different wavelenghts. Credit: ESA

The relative sizes of the inner Solar System, Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. (Credit: NASA, William Crochot)

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A computer simulation of the distribution of matter in the universe. Orange regions host galaxies; blue structures are gas and dark matter. Credit: TNG Collaboration

This illustration shows the evolution of the Universe, from the Big Bang on the left, to modern times on the right. Credit: NASA

Why Can't We See The Big Bang?

Since telescopes let us look back in time, shouldn't we be able to see all the way back to the very beginning of time itself? To the moment of the Big Bang? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

Zooming in on NGC 6752 and Bedin 1

NGC 6725

This video takes the viewer on a journey to the globular cluster NGC 6752. The final view, from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows the bright stars of the cluster, as well as a collection of faint stars; these faint stars are actually part of a background galaxy, which was discovered accidentally by astronomers studying the cluster itself. The galaxy is about 30 million light-years away, is classified as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy and has been nicknamed Bedin 1, after the principal investigator. More information and download options: Credit: Credits: Risinger, DSS, Hubble, Damian Peach Music: Astral Electronic

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The Milky way's Second life


Artist's impression of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a bar. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESO/R. Hurt

Galaxy map org

Schematic diagram showing two stages of star formation in the Milky Way galaxy according to Noguchi. Credit: M. Noguchi/Nature/M. Haywood et al. (2016)/ reproduced with permission � ESO

Model prediction for three different regions of the Milky Way. Credit: M. Noguchi/Nature/M. Haywood et al. (2016)/reproduced with permission � ESO

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This is a 3D map of 400,000 Hot Massive Stars

Star density map, created from the second data release of ESA�s Gaia mission. Credit: Galaxy Map / K. Jardine

ESA�s Gaia is currently on a five-year mission to map the stars of the Milky Way. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab; background: ESO/S. Brunier.

Map of the Milky Way within 3000 parsec of Earth as created by Kevin Jardine. Credit: Galaxy Map/Kevin Jardine.

Gaia 3D map trailer

This animation uses 3D star and dust density meshes available in the latest version of Gaia Sky to animate a journey through the Milky Way. The animation also includes HII regions and covers a region within 3000 parsecs (about 10 thousand light years) from the Sun. (Twitter: @galaxy_map), Meshes produced by Galaxy Map The star density data is taken from Data Release 2 of the European Space Agency's Gaia astrometry satellite. The dust data is from: Lallement, R.; Capitanio, L.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Danielski, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Vergely, J. L.; Elyajouri, M.; Arenou, F.; Leclerc, N. 3D maps of interstellar dust in the Local Arm: using Gaia, 2MASS and APOGEE-DR14 You can read more about the map in this blog post: This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC,...). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.

An interactive version of this map is also available as part of Gaia Sky, a real-time, 3D astronomy visualization software that was developed for the Gaia mission at the University of Heidelberg�s Astronomisches Rechen-Institut.

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NASA is building up a map of the entire sky seen in X-rays, line by line with its NICER experiment

In June of 2017, NASA’s Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was installed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this instrument is to provide high-precision measurements of neutron stars and other super-dense objects that are on the verge of collapsing into black holes. NICER is also be the first instrument designed to test technology that will use pulsars as navigation beacons.

This image of the whole sky shows 22 months of X-ray data recorded by NASA’s Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) payload aboard the International Space Station during its nighttime slews between targets. Credits: NASA/NICER

The NICER payload, shown here on the outside of the International Space Station. Credit: NASA


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Meet Our Neighbour, The Local Void. Gaze Into It, Puny Humans.

Our planet is part of the larger structure of the Solar System, shaped and made stable by the force of gravity. Our Solar System is gravitationally bound to the Milky Way galaxy, along with hundreds of millions of other solar systems. And our galaxy is also part of a larger structure, where not only gravity, but the expansion of the Universe, shapes and molds that structure. For regular Universe Today readers, none of that is news.

Laniakea: Our home supercluster

Superclusters – regions of space that are densely packed with galaxies – are the biggest structures in the Universe. But scientists have struggled to define exactly where one supercluster ends and another begins. Now, a team based in Hawaii has come up with a new technique that maps the Universe according to the flow of galaxies across space. Redrawing the boundaries of the cosmic map, they redefine our home supercluster and name it Laniakea, which means ‘immeasurable heaven’ in Hawaiian. Read the research paper: Read Nature's news story: Caption author (Spanish) Margarita Villegas

Image of the large-scale structure of the Universe, showing filaments and voids within the cosmic structure. Credit: Millennium Simulation Project

Local Group and nearest galaxies. The photos of galaxies are not to scale. Local Group of galaxies, including the massive members Messier 31 (Andromeda Galaxy) and Milky Way, as well as other nearby galaxies. Credit:Antonio Ciccolella - Own work

Cosmicflows-3: Cosmography of the Local Void from Daniel Pomarède on Vimeo.

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What Are Cosmic Voids? The Biggest Nothings in the Universe

We talked about the biggest structures in the Universe, but what about the opposite? The biggest empty spaces in the Universe, the cosmic voids that separate the clusters of galaxies. Check out our interview with Paul M. Sutter, a specialist on cosmic voids: Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”

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Astronomers See the Farthest Galaxy Group Ever Found, When the Universe was Only 5% of its Current Age

With thanks to the following NASA Resources

Astronomers Spot Distant Galaxy Group Driving Ancient Cosmic Makeover

The solar system and beyond

By looking deeper into space (and farther back in time), astronomers and cosmologists continue to push the boundaries of what is known about the Universe. Thanks to improvements in instrumentation and observation techniques, we are now at the point where astronomers are able to observe some of the earliest galaxies in the Universe – which in turn is providing vital clues about how our Universe evolved.

Distant Galaxy Group Caught Driving Ancient Cosmic Makeover

This animation shows EGS77’s place in cosmic history, flies to the galaxies, and illustrates how ultraviolet light from their stars create bubbles of ionized hydrogen around them. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Visualization: How UV Light From 1st Stars, Galaxies Transformed Universe

This visualization shows how ultraviolet light from the first stars and galaxies gradually transformed the universe. Hydrogen atoms, also called neutral hydrogen, readily scatters UV light, preventing it from traveling very far from its sources. Gradually, intense UV light from stars and galaxies split apart the hydrogen atoms, creating expanding bubbles of ionized gas. As these bubbles grew and overlapped, the cosmic fog lifted. Astronomers call this process reionization. Here, regions already ionized are blue and translucent, areas undergoing ionization are red and white, and regions of neutral gas are dark and opaque. Credit: M. Alvarez, R. Kaehler and T. Abel (2009) Read more:

WFIRST: The Best of Both Worlds

NASA officially is beginning work on an astrophysics mission designed to help unlock the secrets of the universe -- the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). With a view 100 times bigger than that of NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, WFIRST will aid researchers in their efforts to unravel the secrets of dark energy and dark matter, and explore the evolution of the cosmos. It also will discover new worlds outside our solar system and advance the search for worlds that could be suitable for life. WFIRST is the agency's next major astrophysics observatory, following the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2018. The observatory will survey large regions of the sky in near-infrared light to answer fundamental questions about the structure and evolution of the universe, and expand our knowledge of planets beyond our solar system, known as exoplanets. It will carry a Wide Field Instrument for surveys, and a Coronagraph Instrument designed to block the glare of individual stars and reveal the faint light of planets orbiting around them. By blocking the light of the host star, the Coronagraph Instrument will enable detailed measurements of the chemical makeup of planetary atmospheres. Comparing these data across many worlds will allow scientists to better understand the origin and physics of these atmospheres, and search for chemical signs of environments suitable for life. The telescope’s sensitivity and wide view will enable a large-scale search for exoplanets by monitoring the brightness of millions of stars in the crowded central region of our galaxy. The survey will net thousands of new exoplanets similar in size and distance from their star as those in our own solar system, complementing the work started by NASA's Kepler mission and the upcoming work of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. Employing multiple techniques, astronomers also will use WFIRST to track how dark energy and dark matter have affected the evolution of our universe. Dark energy is a mysterious, negative pressure that has been speeding up the expansion of the universe. Dark matter is invisible material that makes up most of the matter in our universe. By measuring the distances of thousands of supernovae, astronomers can map in detail how cosmic expansion has increased with time. WFIRST also can precisely measure the shapes, positions and distances of millions of galaxies to track the distribution and growth of cosmic structures, including galaxy clusters and the dark matter accompanying them. WFIRST is slated to launch in the mid-2020s. The observatory will begin operations after traveling to a gravitational balance point known as Earth-Sun L2, which is located about one million miles from Earth in a direction directly opposite the sun. WFIRST is managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, with participation by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, also in Pasadena, and a science team comprised of members from U.S. research institutions across the country. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Scott Wiessinger This video is public domain and may be downloaded at:

From Phys.org The Most distant galaxy as of May 2020

A Massive Rotating Disc Discovered in the Early Universe (from Universetoday.com)

Newly Found Galaxy Wolfe Disk Shouldn't Really Exist

You can buy Universe Sandbox 2 game here: Hello and welcome! My name is Anton and in this video, we will talk about a new discovery of what seems to be a disk galaxy in an early universe - something we didn't think would be possible. Paper: Support this channel on Patreon to help me make this a full time job: Space Engine is available for free here: Enjoy and please subscribe. Twitter: Facebook: Twitch: Bitcoins to spare? Donate them here to help this channel grow! 1GFiTKxWyEjAjZv4vsNtWTUmL53HgXBuvu The hardware used to record these videos: CPU: Video Card: Motherboard: RAM: PSU: Case: Microphone: Mixer: Recording and Editing:

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New Research Suggests that the Universe is a Sphere and Not Flat After All

Figure from the 1600s showing Ptolemy’s universe. Credit: Library of Congress

Possible shapes of the universe. Credit: NASA

Appearance of the CMB affected by cosmic shape. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team

The Universe: Size, Shape, and Fate

The Universe: Size, Shape, and Fate By Tom Murphy, January 9, 2006

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The Square Kilometer Telescope proposal

The Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millineter Array (ALMA).

Information from the recent European Space Agency’s Advanced Concepts Team conference

Webpage European Space Agency’s Advanced Concepts Team.

Article from Centari dreams

The Size, Shape, and Scattering of Sagittarius A* at 86 GHz: First VLBI with ALMA (PDF)

Astronomers watch the aftermath of a star ripped apart by a huge black hole

Here's the deal. In the center of every big galaxy is a big black hole, one so big we call it supermassive. When the Universe was young this central black hole formed along with its galaxy, and in many ways the two affect each other as they both grow. Over time, as the galaxy grows big, so does that beast in the middle.

The missing light of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field* (PDF)


The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies (PDF) 
R. Brent Tully1 , Helene Courtois2 , Yehuda Hoffman3 & Daniel Pomarède4

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