Mission to Neptune

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INTRODUCTION to the Mssion to Neptune

View of the Sun from Neptune

Status of the Deep Space Network


Outward Bound: Colonizing Neptune

A look at Neptune, a potential gateway to the stars... Visit our sponsor, Brilliant: The Icy Giants, Neptune and Uranus, are often overlooked for as candidates for colonizing our solar system. Even when noted, the focus tends to be on their larger moons like Triton. Today we will challenge that notion by looking at way we might place a colony on the planet itself, and how Orbital Rings and Chandelier Cities might let us colonize any gas giant. We will also look at how helium-3, a core ingredient of aneutronic fusion abundant on Neptune, might serve as the fuel of future starships, and the physics behind some other starship drives future science might give us access to, such as laser propulsion. Credits: Outward Bound: Colonizing Neptune Episode 152, Season 4 E38 Social Media: Facebook Group Reddit: Twitter:on Twitter and RT our future content. SFIA Discord Server: Music: Markus Junnikkala, "Hail the Victorious Dead" Serena Ellis, "Science" Stellardrone, "Cepheid" Chris Zabriskie,"We Were Never Meant to Live Here" Aerium, "Fifth star of Aldebaran" NJ Mandaville, "Swell" Caption author (Spanish (Spain)) Fer blancart Writers: Isaac Arthur Editors: Darius Said Gregory Leal Jerry Guern Keith Blockus Mark Warburton Matthew Acker Sigmund Kopperud Producer Isaac Arthur

Two of Neptune’s Moons Dance Around Each Other as they Orbit

Like a long-married couple accustomed to each other’s kitchen habits, two of Neptune’s moons are masters at sharing space without colliding. And though both situations may appear odd to an observer, there’s a certain dance-like quality to them both.

Naiad and Thalassa were discovered by Voyager 2 in 1989. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Neptune's Moon Dance

An observer sitting on Thalassa would see Naiad in an orbit that varies wildly in a zigzag pattern, passing by twice from above and then twice from below. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Reort on Orbits and resonances of the regular moons of Neptune

Orbits and resonances of the regular moons of Neptune(PDF)

credits: 1 Marina Brozović, 2 Mark R. Showalter, 1 Robert A. Jacobson, 2 Robert S. French, 3 Jack J. Lissauer, 4 Imke de Pater 1 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099, USA 2 SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA 3 Space Science & Astrobiology Division, MS 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, orcid ID 0000-0001-6513-1659 4 University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

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Mission to Neptune


Worlds of Shadow and Light: The Moons of Uranus and Neptune

The moons of Uranus and Neptune are some of the most fascinating and least known worlds in the Solar System. Here's what we know about them. Me on Facebook: Me on Twitter:


NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft gave humanity its first glimpse of Neptune and its moon Triton in the summer of 1989. This picture of Neptune was produced from the last whole planet images taken through the green and orange filters on the Voyager 2 narrow angle camera. The images were taken on Aug. 20, 1989, at a range of 4.4 million miles from the planet, 4 days and 20 hours before closest approach on Aug. 25. The picture shows the Great Dark Spot and its companion bright smudge; on the west limb the fast moving bright feature called "Scooter" and the little dark spot are visible. These clouds were seen to persist for as long as Voyager's cameras could resolve them. North of these, a bright cloud band similar to the south polar streak may be seen. In the summer of 2015, another NASA mission to the farthest zone of the solar system, New Horizons, will make a historic first close-up study of Pluto. Although a fast flyby, New Horizons' Pluto encounter on July 14, 2015, will not be a replay of Voyager but more of a sequel and a reboot, with a new and more technologically advanced spacecraft and, more importantly, a new cast of characters. Those characters are Pluto and its family of five known moons, all of which will be seen up close for the first time next summer(2015) Image Credit: NASA

ESOcast 172 Light: Supersharp Images from New VLT Adaptive Optics (4K UHD)

ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) has achieved first light with a new adaptive optics mode called laser tomography — and has captured remarkably sharp test images of the planet Neptune, star clusters and other objects. The pioneering MUSE instrument in Narrow-Field Mode, working with the GALACSI adaptive optics module, can now use this new technique to correct for turbulence at different altitudes in the atmosphere. It is now possible to capture images from the ground at visible wavelengths that are sharper than those from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The combination of exquisite image sharpness and the spectroscopic capabilities of MUSE will enable astronomers to study the properties of astronomical objects in much greater detail than was possible before. This ESOcast gives a taste of these remarkable results. The video is available in 4K UHD. The ESOcast Light is a series of short videos bringing you the wonders of the Universe in bite-sized pieces. The ESOcast Light episodes will not be replacing the standard, longer ESOcasts, but complement them with current astronomy news and images in ESO press releases. More information and download options: Subscribe to ESOcast in iTunes! Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: : Watch more ESOcast episodes Find out how to view and contribute subtitles for the ESOcast in multiple languages, or translate this video on YouTube: Credit: ESO Directed by: Nico Bartmann. Editing: Nico Bartmann. Web and technical support: Mathias André and Raquel Yumi Shida. Written by: Stephen Molyneux and Richard Hook. . Music: tonelabs Footage and photos: ESO, R. Bacon, P. Weilbacher (AIP), C. Malin (christophmalin.com), L. Calçada and MUSE consortium. Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen. Caption author (Vietnamese) Sang Mai Thanh Caption author (Croatian) GemSirin Caption author (Portuguese (Brazil)) Juvenal Caon Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)

NASA's Page on Neptune

Neptune's Magnetic Field

A snapshot of Neptune’s magnetic field from the movie. Credit: Lars Mejnertsen, Imperial College London
Although new missions to Neptune have been proposed, none are likely to arrive for many decades.
So for now, the only way to better understand how the planet works is through computer simulations.
In a new example of interdisciplinary research at Imperial College London, the space and atmospheric
physics group and the plasma physics group have been working together to address this challenge.
: "Read more

The Moons of Neptune by MATT WILLIAMS on SEPTEMBER 8, 2015

Neptune and its moons. Credit: NASA


Hubble Space Telescope composite picture showing the location of a newly discovered moon,
designated S/2004 N 1. Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Showalter (SETI Institute).

The labeled ring arcs of Neptune as seen in newly processed data. The image spans 26 exposures combined into a equivalent 95 minute exposure, and the ring trace and an image of the occulted planet Neptune is added for reference. (Credit: M. Showalter/SETI Institute).


The interior structure of Neptune. Credit: Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Composition and interior structure of Neptune. Credit: NASA


Time line Neptune's incredible shrinking storm credit: NASA

Voyager 2 captured this image of Neptune in 1982, when it was over 7 million km (4.4 million miles) away from the planet. The Great Dark Spot in the middle of the image was the first storm ever seen on Neptune. Image: By NASA (JPL image) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

For the first time, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured time-lapse images of a large, dark storm on Neptune shrinking out of existence. A recent Hubble program called Outer Planets Atmosphere Legacy, or OPAL, provides yearly global maps of our gas giant planets, allowing planetary scientists to view changes in formations such as Neptune's dark storms. Read the full story on View the full image release - Find the science paper -(PDF) Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Katrina Jackson Music credit: "Struggling in the City" by Emre Ramazanoglu [PRS], Jamie Michael Bradley Reddington [PRS], and Patrick Green [PRS]; Atmosphere Music Ltd [PRS]; BLOCK; Killer Tracks Production Music This video is public domain and along with other supporting visualizations can be downloaded from the Scientific Visualization Studio at: If you liked this video, subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: Or subscribe to NASA’s Goddard Shorts HD Podcast: Follow NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center · Facebook: · Twitter · Flickr · Instagram · Google+ Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Hubble Releases a New Image of Neptune, Revealing a Rapidly Shifting Storm

Storms on Neptune seem to follow a pattern of forming, strengthening and then dissipating over the course of about two Earth years. But a Neptunian storm spotted in the planet’s atmosphere over two years ago has done something quite different: it has reversed course and is still going strong. The storm, which is wider than the Atlantic Ocean, originated in the planet’s northern hemisphere and seen with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2018. Observations a year later showed that it began drifting southward toward the equator, where previous similar whirling storms went to die. But recent observations with Hubble spotted the vortex doubling back to the north in August of 2020.

Neptune, captured by Voyager 2. Image credit: NASA

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Neptune's Moon Triton

Living on Neptune's Moon Triton

TRITON!, an Artist Impression of Neptune from Triton

Map of Neptune's Moon Triton

Paul Schenk of the Lunar and Planetary Institute used data from NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft,
which flew by Neptune and its big moon Triton on Aug. 25, 1989, to create this best-ever global color map of the moon.

"In the intervening quarter century and its many discoveries, I think we have tended to forget how strange and exotic Triton really is!"
Schenk wrote in a blog post Thursday (Aug. 21, 2014).

TRITON: A moon with atmosphere
by Emily Lakdawalla

NASA / JPL / Ted Stryk Triton color global view Voyager 2 acquired the images for this high-resolution mosaic of Triton on August 25, 1989.
The south pole is at the left; several of Triton's famous south polar geysers are visible.
Toward the equator at right, Triton is covered with a strange "cantaloupe terrain".

Neptune’s Moon of Triton(Mosaic) by FRASER CAIN on JULY 28, 2015

Global Color Mosaic of Triton, taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1989. Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS


Artist's impression of what the surface of Triton may look like. Credit: ESO

Neptune and its large moon Triton as seen by Voyager 2 on August 28th, 1989. Credit: NASA

Montage of Neptune’s largest moon, Triton and the planet Neptune showing the moon’s sublimating south polar cap (bottom) and enigmatic “cantaloupe terrain”. Credit: NASA

The moons of Uranus and Neptune as imaged during the 2011 opposition season. Credit: Rolf Wahl Olsen.

Neptune's Moon Triton Has a Rare Kind of Ice

NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft captured dark streaks produced by geysers visible on the icy surface of Triton's south polar region. (Image: © NASA/JPL)

Neptune's largest moon Triton boasts an uncommon icy mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen, which could help astronomers better understand the conditions of other distant alien worlds. Using the Gemini Observatory in Chile and the high-resolution spectrograph called IGRINS (Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer), a visiting instrument for Gemini, astronomers detected a distinct infrared signature on Triton, revealing a mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen frozen as solid ice. This finding helps explain seasonal atmospheric changes on Triton and how material is transported across the moon's surface via geysers, according to a statement. Prior to detecting this unique signature on Triton, researchers first identified the specific wavelength of infrared light absorbed by an ice mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecules in the lab. "While the icy spectral fingerprint we uncovered was entirely reasonable, especially as this combination of ices can be created in the lab, pinpointing this specific wavelength of infrared light on another world is unprecedented," Stephen Tegler, lead author of the study from Northern Arizona University's Astrophysical Materials Laboratory, said in the statement. The icy mixture detected on Triton could help explain the moon's iconic geysers, which are the dark, windblown streaks first observed by NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft in the moon's south polar region. These distinct streaks are believed to be erupted material from an internal ocean, or an icy mixture that migrates around the surface in response to changing seasonal patterns of sunlight, according to the statement. "Despite Triton's distance from the sun and the cold temperatures, the weak sunlight is enough to drive strong seasonal changes on Triton's surface and atmosphere," Henry Roe, deputy director of Gemini and a member of the research team, said in the statement. "This work demonstrates the power of combining laboratory studies with telescope observations to understand complex planetary processes in alien environments so different from what we encounter every day here on Earth." In fact, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft found that carbon monoxide and nitrogen ices coexist on Pluto. However, the recent findings are the first evidence of these ices mixing, according to the statement. Therefore, the study, which will be published in The Astronomical Journal, sheds light on the possible composition of ices and seasonal variations in the atmosphere on other distant worlds beyond Neptune.


Could we live on Triton?

Subscribe to Naked Science – Welcome to Triton, one of Neptune’s moons, super-chilled and covered in frozen nitrogen snow. It would be big enough for us to live on, the question is, could we? Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered, by English astronomer William Lassell in 1846. It is the only large moon in the Solar System with a retrograde orbit, an orbit in the opposite direction to its planet's rotation. Clip taken from the Naked Science documentary “Deadliest Planets”.

Talk about recycling! Twenty-five years after Voyager 2 zinged past Neptune�s moon Triton, scientists have put together a new map of the icy moon�s surface using the old data. The information has special relevance right now because the New Horizons spacecraft is approaching Pluto fast, getting to the dwarf planet in less than a year. And it�s quite possible that Pluto and Triton will look similar.


Published on Aug 21, 2014 The Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Triton, a moon of Neptune, on August 25, 1989. Paul Schenk,
a scientist at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, used Voyager data to construct this video recreating that exciting encounter.

Exploring Neptune's Captured Kuiper Belt Object

Published on May 6, 2016 In the summer of 1989 Earthlings got their first view of Neptune and its formidable moon Triton. Fast forward 25 years and scientists are working on technologies to not only visit this icy moon but ‘hop' around on its surface too. NASA 360 joins Geoffrey A. Landis and Steven Oleson, both of NASA Glenn Research Center, as they discuss their concept for a hopper vehicle to explore Triton. This video was developed from a live recording at the 2015 NIAC Fall Symposium in October, 2015. To watch the full original talk please visit: To learn about NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts please visit: This video represents a research study within the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program.
NIAC is a visionary and far-reaching aerospace program, one that has the potential to create breakthrough technologies
for possible future space missions. However, such early stage technology development may never become actual NASA missions.
For more information about NIAC

Our Solar System's Moons: Triton

Everything you could want to know about Neptune's largest moon, Triton. NASA Voyager 2 images of Triton explained. ************** A big thank you to Brilliant for supporting this video. Sign up for free using the link above. That link will also get the first 200 subscribers 20% off a premium subscription to the website if you like what you see. ************** SUBSCRIBE for more videos about our other planets. Subscribe! Facebook! Twitter! Donate! Patreon: Ethereum Wallet: 0x5F8cf793962ae8Df4Cba017E7A6159a104744038 Become a Patron today and support my channel! Donate link above. I can't do it without you. Thanks to those who have supported so far! Image Credits: NASA Music Credits: Stellardrone - Ultra Deep Field Stellardrone - Cepheid Neutrin05 - Above the Clouds

Triton - The Orphan Moon

The Lesser Worlds - Episode #2 At the most distant recesses of our Solar System lay the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune. We have only managed to visit these worlds once, and as such we know considerably less about the moons that orbit them. However, one moon stands out from the rest - Triton. Today, we will examine its unique features, and also relive the story of how this Kuiper Belt object came to be Neptune's largest satellite. FOLLOW MY NEW TWITTER! Join the NEW, OFFICIAL PARTNER #SeaSquad 100K Discord Server! Sources, Footage and Attribution: ========================== MUSIC: - We Were Never Meant to Live Here - Chris Zabriskie - Let the Pain Speak to Me - Chris Zabriskie - That Hopeful Future is All I've Ever Known - Chris Zabriskie All tracks by Chris Zabriskie licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"> Artist: FOOTAGE: Multiple sequences in this video were captured using SpaceEngine Pro, a virtual universe simulator! Get SpaceEngine on Steam and try it for yourself: https://store.steampowered.com/app/314650/SpaceEngine/"> Much of the stock footage in this video was provided by Videezy.com. Check them out: - A Space Journey (8m Exhibition): Voyager II: Geysers: SOURCES OF INFORMATION: - NASA on Triton: - Triton's Geological Activity: BBC Two's "The Planets" with Professor Brian Cox - Episode #5 - "Into the Darkness - Ice Worlds" - Trident Mission: Thanks for watching! Business Enquiries:

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NASA Thinks it’s Time to Return to Neptune With its Trident Mission

Is it time to head back to Neptune and its moon Triton? It might be. After all, we have some unfinished business there. It’s been 30 years since NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft flew past the gas giant and its largest moon, and that flyby posed more questions than it answered. Maybe we’ll get some answers in 2038, when the positions of Jupiter, Neptune, and Triton will be just right for a mission. NASA is deliberating over the next mission in its Discovery Program, narrowing it down to four possibilities: a mission to study Venus’ atmosphere, one to observe volcanic activity on Jupiter’s moon Io, one to map Venus’ surface and study its geology, and one to explore Neptune’s moon Triton.

Global Color Mosaic of Triton, taken by Voyager 2 in 1989. Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS

Triton is by far the largest of Neptune’s moons. It’s in a counter-rotation with neptune, and is most likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object, rather than an in-situ moon. Neptune’s outer moon Neried is on a highly elliptical orbit and is not shown. Image Credit: NASA / ESA / A. Feild, STScI

The surface of Triton is very rugged, scarred by rising blobs of ice, faults and volcanic pits and lava flows composed of water and other ices. The surface is also extremely young and sparsely cratered, and could be geologically active today. This Voyager image shows the moon’s “cantaloupe terrain.” This scene is on the order of 150 meters (500 feet) across. Vertical relief has been exaggerated by a factor of 25 to aid interpretation. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Universities Space Research Association/Lunar & Planetary Institute

Three grainy images of Triton’s surface from Voyager 2. This is a time sequence of image taken 45 minutes apart, from top to bottom. They show a dark geyser-like plume of material reaching a height of 8 km (5 mi) above the surface. The cloud of material drifts downward to the right for about 150 km (100 miles) and appears to get denser in each image. Image Credit: NASA/JPL

This Voyager 2 images shows a close-up of a prominent chain of volcanic features surrounded by smooth volcanic plains formed by lavas or ash deposits of water or other ices, such as methane or ammonia. The smaller pits and domes are typically 10 kilometers (6 miles) across and have relief of no more than a few hundred meters (several hundred feet). The large depressions at the far left and right of the chain are 50 to 80 kilometers (31 to 50 miles) across. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Universities Space Research Association/Lunar & Planetary Institute

A new Discovery mission proposal, Trident would explore Neptune’s largest moon, Triton, which is potentially an ocean world with liquid water under its icy crust. Trident aims to answer the questions outlined in the graphic illustration above. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Is It Time To Go Back to Uranus and Neptune? Revisiting Ice Giants of the Solar System

We’ve only seen Uranus and Neptune one time up close. There are now some mission ideas in the works that might take us back. NASA's missions: : Visit the sub-reddit Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber -

The ESA has been considering a mission to both of our Solar System’s ice giants and their moons. Ice Giant atmospheres are shaped by dynamical, chemical and radiative processes that are not found elsewhere in our Solar System. Triton’s strange properties makes it stand out from its peers. Images A & C are false-colour representations of Voyager 2 observations of Uranus and Neptune, respectively. Images B and D were acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2018. Image Credit: Fletcher et al, 2020.

Why do Uranus and Neptune Have Magnetic Fields? Hot ice

Interior of Neptune Credit – Vadim Sadovski

Neptune's Spidery, Swirly Magnetic Field Finally Understood | Video

Neptune's rotational axis (28.3°) is a little more tilted than Earth's (23.5°) and, because it has no solid surface, its equatorial atmosphere spins more slowly (18 hrs.) than its magnetic field (16 hrs.). Researchers at London's Imperial College have combined Voyager's dataset with plasma and atmosphere observations to accurately model Neptune’s magnetosphere for the first time. -- Full Story: Credit: Imperial College, London / NASA / Space.com

Is It Time To Go Back to Uranus and Neptune? Revisiting Ice Giants of the Solar System

We’ve only seen Uranus and Neptune one time up close. There are now some mission ideas in the works that might take us back. NASA's missions: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com Karla Thompson - @karlaii / Karla Thompson's youtube channel Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

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Hubble site's report on Neptune's storm

Articles from Universetoday

Neptune & Triton – August 31, 1989.

NASA Thinks it’s Time to Return to Neptune With its Trident Mission

Neptune’s Moon Triton

Hubble Releases a New Image of Neptune, Revealing a Rapidly Shifting Storm





Why do Uranus and Neptune Have Magnetic Fields? Hot ice

Both Uranus and Neptune Have Really Bizarre Magnetic Fields

Exploring the Universe For Magnetic Fields

Universe Today's CATEGORY: NEPTUNE

Universe Today's TAG: ICE

Universe Today's TAG: MAGNETIC FIELD

Universe Today's TAG: NEPTUNE

Universe Today's TAG: URANUS

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information on NASA's plan to explore the outer solar system (PDF)


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