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Our Milky Way Galaxy

Hubble Data Help Show How Milky Way Galaxy Got Its Spiral Shape

Latest Milky Way Map in 3D


The FUGIN project used the 45 meter Nobeyama radio telescope in Japan to produce the most detailed radio wave map yet of the Milky Way. Top: Three color (false color) radio map of the Milky Way (l=10-50 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. Red, green, and blue represent the radio intensities of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. Second Line: Infrared image of the same region obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Red, green, and blue represent the intensities of 24?m, 8?m, and 5.8?m radio waves respectively. Top Zoom-In: Three color radio map of the Milky Way (l=12-22 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. The colors are the same as the top image. Lower-Left Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the W51 region. The colors are the same as the top image.Lower-Right Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the M17 region. The colors are the same as the top image. Image: NAOJ/NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Nobeyama 45m radio telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan. Image:NAOJ

Starscape photograph taken at Nobeyama Radio Observatory by Norikazu Okabe. The FUGIN observation region (l=10-50 deg) is marked. Credit: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

An artist�s image showing the major features of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech, ESO, J. Hurt

Totally Spectacular Flyover Through The Veil Nebula

The Hubble Space Telescope took a new image of the Veil Nebula, a supernova remnant from a star that exploded 8,000 years ago, and made this truly spectacular flyover visualisation of the beautiful ripple in space that you can see below. In the 3D visualisation, red is sulphur, green is hydrogen and blue is oxygen.

Amateur Astronomer Chases Down Barnard�s Star � You Can Too!
by BOB KING on SEPTEMBER 17, 2015

9-year-animation of Barnard�s Star from 2007 to July 2015 as it tracked north through Ophiuchus at the rate of 10.3 arc seconds per year. Amateur Rick Johnson photographed it once each year to creater the movie. You can watch the same thing in your telescope if you�re patient! Credit: Rick Johnson

Cool, Dim Dwarf Star is Magnetic Powerhouse; The red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546.

Animation of artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks

Artist impression of red dwarf star TVLM 513-46546. ALMA observations suggest
that it has an amazingly powerful magnetic field, potentially associated with a flurry of solar-flare-like eruptions.
Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF; Dana Berry / SkyWorks

Visible Light from a Black Hole Spotted by Telescope, a First by Charles Q. Choi, Space.com Contributor | January 06, 2016 01:01pm ET

For the first time, astronomers have seen dim flickers of visible light from near a black hole,
researchers with an international science team said. In fact, the light could be visible to anyone with a moderate-size telescope.

NASA Telescopes Detect Jupiter-Like Storm on Small Star Dec 11, 2015

- See more

This illustration shows a cool star, called W1906+40, marked by a raging storm near one of its poles.
The storm is thought to be similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Scientists discovered it
using NASA�s Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech - See more


The Milky Way galaxy, perturbed by the tidal interaction with a dwarf galaxy, as predicted by N-body simulations. The locations of the observed stars above and below the disk, which are used to test the perturbation scenario, are indicated. Credit: T. Mueller/C. Laporte/NASA/JPL-Caletch

Artist�s impression of the Milky Way Galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)

Computer model of the Milky Way and its smaller neighbor, the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Credit: Tollerud, Purcell and Bullock/UC Irvine

360-degree panorama view of the Milky Way (an assembled mosaic of photographs) by ESO. Credit: ESO/S. Brunier

This is the Deepest View of the Hot, Energetic Universe

The eRosita X-ray telescope has revealed its first all-sky survey, captured over six months by rotating continuously. The result? This map containing over one million objects across the hot, energetic universe. Within the Milky Way, eROSITA captured ancient white dwarves, supernova remnants, stars with hot, active coronae, neighboring galaxies like the Magellanic Clouds. Mara Salvato, the lead scientist at MPE said that they all eagerly await eROSITA'S complete, all-sky map. Previously, telescopes have measured the sky at other wavelengths and the new X-ray images can match those discoveries. Predehl describes the stunning images as a 'wealth of detail.'

Credit: Amaze Labs

eROSITA's all sky x-ray survey

Breathtaking new map of the X-ray Universe BERLIN, June 19, 2020: Behold the hot, energetic Universe. A German-Russian space telescope has just acquired a breakthrough map of the sky that traces the heavens in X-rays. The image records a lot of the violent action in the cosmos - instances where matter is being accelerated, heated and shredded. Feasting black holes, exploding stars, and searingly hot gas. The data comes from the eRosita instrument mounted on Spektr-RG . This orbiting telescope was launched in July last year and despatched to an observing position some 1.5 million km from Earth. Once commissioned and declared fully operational in December, it was left to slowly rotate and scan the depths of space. eRosita's first all-sky data-set, represented in the image at the top of this page, was completed only last week. It records over a million sources of X-rays.

One of Our Best Views of the Supermassive Black Hole at the Heart of the Milky Way

Top left: simulation of Sgr A* at 86 GHz without interstellar scattering. Top right: simulation with interstellar scattering. Bottom right: observed image of Sgr A*. Bottom left: observed image of Sgr A* after removing the effects of interstellar scattering. Credit: S. Issaoun, M. Mo?cibrodzka, Radboud University/ M. D. Johnson, CfA

This artist�s concept shows a �feeding,� or active, supermassive black hole with a jet streaming outward at nearly the speed of light. Such active black holes are often found at the hearts of elliptical galaxies. If a jet happens to shine at Earth, the object is called a blazar. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

An artist�s impression of the accretion disc around the supermassive black hole that powers an active galaxy. Astronomers want to know if the energy radiated from our galaxy�s supermassive black hole is caused by jets of material shooting away from the hole, or by the accretion disk of swirling material near the hole. Credit: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital

The Global Millimeter VLBI Array, joined by ALMA. Credit: S. Issaoun, Radboud University/ D. Pesce, CfA

Researchers using the Event Horizon Telescope hope to generate images like this of supermassive black hole Sag. A�s event horizon. Image Credit: EHT.

This is the Milky Way’s Magnetic Field

A representation of how our Galaxy would look in the sky if we could see magnetic fields. The plane of the Galaxy runs horizontally through the middle, and the Galactic centre direction is the middle of the map. Red–pink colours show increasing Galactic magnetic field strengths where the direction is pointing towards the Earth. Blue–purple colours show increasing Galactic magnetic field strengths where the direction is pointing away from the Earth. The background shows the signal reconstructed using sources outside our Galaxy. The points show the current measurements for pulsars. The squares show the measurements from this work using LOFAR pulsar observations. Image Credit: Sobey et al, 2019.

Dr. Sobey chilling in a telescope. Image Credit: CSIRO

Artist’s impression of the 5km diameter central core of Square Kilometre Array (SKA) antennas. Image Credit: SPDO/TDP/DRAO/Swinburne Astronomy Productions – SKA Project Development Office and Swinburne Astronomy Productions

Lofar interactive map

LOFAR sites are spread around Europe, with the concentrated central core in the Netherlands. Image Credit: LOFAR

An illustration of a pulsar. Pulsars emit electromagnetic energy along the magnetic axis. Image Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab

News Release Number: STScI-2016-04 Monstrous Cloud Boomerangs Back to Our Galaxy - January 28, 2016

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This Star has been Kicked Out of the Milky Way. It Knows What It Did.

Every once in a while, the Milky Way ejects a star. The evicted star is typically ejected from the chaotic area at the center of the galaxy, where our Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) lives. But at least one of them was ejected from the comparatively calm galactic disk, a discovery that has astronomers rethinking this whole star ejection phenomenon.

The structure of the Milky Way. Image Credit: ESA

via Gfycat

A young star, similar to the renegade star PG 1610+062, gets ejected from the Milky Way by a hungry black hole. So long!(Image: © A. IRRGANG, FAU) Astronomers have discovered a bright, young star that is running away from home. Why? What did the star's parents do to deserve this? According to a study published Aug. 6 in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, it's nobody's fault; it seems the young star simply fell in with the wrong crowd — namely, a very hungry black hole.

Report on Hypervelocity Star PG1610+062
From the Journal the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics

PG 1610+062: a runaway B star challenging classical ejection mechanisms A. Irrgang1 , S. Geier2 , U. Heber1 , T. Kupfer3 , and F. Fürst4,5

Monica Valluri and Kohei Hattori tracked a hypervelocity star called LAMOST-HVS1, a hypervelocity star that is closer to the Sun any other. They used one of the Magellan telescopes to measure the star’s velocity and position. Then they joined with other colleagues and combined their data with data from the ESA’s Gaia mission to trace the hypervelocity’s trajectory back to its origin. They were surprised when the origin of the star was not the bulge, but the galactic disk.

Star clusters like the Trapezium cluster in Orion are embedded in gas and dust in the galactic disk and are very difficult to see. There may be a cluster similar to this in the Norma spiral arm, the origin of the hypervelocity star LAMOST-HVS1. Image Credit: By NASA/CXC/Penn State/E.Feigelson & K.Getman et al. Public Domain,

Astronomers are Finding Binary Pairs of Stars Thrown out of Galaxies Together

A rogue star is one that has escaped the gravitational pull of its home galaxy. These stars drift through intergalactic space, and so are sometimes called intergalactic stars. Sometimes, when a rogue star is ejected from its galaxy, it drags its binary pair along for the ride.

A Star had a Partial Supernova and Kicked Itself Into a High-Speed Journey
Across the Milky Way

Supernovae are some of the most powerful events in the Universe. They’re extremely energetic, luminous explosions that can light up the sky. Astrophysicists have a pretty good idea how they work, and they’ve organized supernovae into two broad categories: they’re the end state for massive stars that explode near the end of their lives, or they’re white dwarfs that draw gas from a companion which triggers runaway fusion.

Our Sun, and any star with the same mass, will follow a common evolutionary path. Once it leaves the main sequence, after hydrogen burning is complete, it becomes a red giant, then a white dwarf. Image Credit : By Lithopsian – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Artist’s rendition of a white dwarf from the surface of an orbiting exoplanet. Image Credit: Madden/Cornell University

Can You Kill A Star With Iron? Why Iron Isn't Poison to Stars

Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”

An artist’s image of a white dwarf drawing material away from its companion. Image Credit: NASA

Supernova 1994D in Galaxy NGC 4526. Normally, a supernova explosion is visible for months. The afterglow is caused by abundant, radioactive Nickel. But SDSS J1240+6710 produced very little nickel. Image Credit: NASA/ESA, The Hubble Key Project Team and The High-Z Supernova Search Team

Artist illustration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra is the most sensitive X-ray telescope ever built. Credit: NASA/CXC/NGST

The Fornax Galaxy Cluster is one of the closest of such groupings beyond our Local Group of galaxies. This new VLT Survey Telescope image shows the central part of the cluster in great detail. At the lower-right is the elegant barred-spiral galaxy NGC 1365 and to the left the big elliptical NGC 1399. Acknowledgement: Aniello Grado and Luca Limatola – Image Credit: By ESO. CC BY 4.0,

An illustration showing a larger star “feeding” on a smaller star. As the larger star gains gaseous matter, it forms a rotating disk. Eventually that disk heats up to tens of millions of degrees and emits x-rays.

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Artist's impression of the "Black Hole Ultimate Solar System".


Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

What Is The Habitable Zone?

We've found hundreds of exoplanets in the galaxy. But only a few of them have just the right combination of factors to hold life like Earth's. The weather in your hometown is downright uninhabitable. There�s scorching heatwaves, annual tyhpoonic deluges, and snow deep enough to bury a corn silo. The bad news is planet Earth is the only habitable place we know of in the entire Universe. Also, are the Niburians suffering from Niburian made climate change? Only Niburian Al Gore can answer that question. We as a species are interested in habitability for an assortment of reasons, political, financial, humanitarian and scientific. We want to understand how our own climate is changing. How we�ll live in the climate of the future and what we can do to stem the tide of what our carbon consumption causes. There could be agendas to push for cleaner energy sources, or driving politicians towards climate change denial to maintain nefarious financial gain. We also might need a new lilypad to jump to, assuming we can sort out the travel obstacles. The thing that interests me personally the most is, when can I see an alien? The habitable zone, also known as the �Goldilocks Zone�, is the region around a star where the average temperature on a planet allows for liquid water with which to make porridge. It�s that liquid water that we hunt for not only for our future uses, but as an indicator of where alien life could be in the Universe. Problems outside this range are pretty obvious. Too hot, it�s a perpetual steam bath, or it produces separate piles of hydrogen and oxygen. Then your oxygen combines with carbon to form carbon dioxide, and then hydrogen just buggers off into space. This is what happened with Venus. If the planet�s too cold, then bodies of water are solid skating rinks. There could be pockets of liquid water deep beneath the icy surface, but overall, they�re bad places to live. We�ve got this on Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The habitable zone is a rough measurement. It�s a place where liquid water might exist. Unfortunately, it�s not just a simple equation of the distance to the star versus the amount of energy output. The atmosphere of the planet matters a lot. In fact, both Venus and Mars are considered to be within the Solar System�s habitable zone. Venusian atmosphere is so thick with carbon dioxide that it traps energy from the Sun and creates an inhospitable oven of heat that would quickboil any life faster than you can say �pass the garlic butter�. It�s the opposite on Mars. The thin atmosphere won�t trap any heat at all, so the planet is bun-chillingly cold. Upgrade the atmospheres of either planet and you could get worlds which would be perfectly reasonable to live on. Maybe if we could bash them together and we could spill the atmosphere of one onto the other? Tell Blackbolt to ring up Franklin Richards, I have an idea! When we look at other worlds in the Milky Way and wonder if they have life, it�s not enough to just check to see if they�re in the habitable zone. We need to know what shape their atmosphere is in. Astronomers have actually discovered planets located in the habitable zones around other stars, but from what we can tell, they�re probably not places you�d want to live. They�re all orbiting red dwarf stars. It doesn�t sound too bad to live in a red tinted landscape, provided it came with an Angelo Badalamenti soundtrack, red dwarf stars are extremely violent in their youth. They blast out enormous solar flares and coronal mass ejections. These would scour the surface of any planets caught orbiting them close enough for liquid water to be present. There is some hope. After a few hundred million years of high activity, these red dwarf stars settle down and sip away at their fuel reserves of hydrogen for potentially trillions of years. If life can hold on long enough to get through the early stages, it might have a long existence ahead of it. When you�re thinking about a new home among the stars, or trying to seek out new life in the Universe, look for planets in the habitable zone. As we�ve seen, it�s only a rough guideline. You probably want to check out the place first and make sure it�s truly liveable before you commit to a timeshare condo around Gliese 581. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Illustration of tightly-packed orbits of Earth-mass planets in orbit around the Sun (in black) vs. around a supermassive black hole (green). Credit: Sean Raymond

Based upon this system.

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The Milky way's Second life


Artist's impression of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a bar. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESO/R. Hurt

The World of Galaxymap.org

Information on Introduction to the Milky Way Explorer


Information on Galaxymap.org

Galaxy Map blog

Information on Galaxy Map blog

Galaxy Map twitter feed.

Information on Galaxy Map twitter feed

Introduction to the Milky Way Explorer

Information on Introduction to the Milky Way Explorer

Interactive map

Information on Galaxymap.org's Interactive map

An interactive version of this map is also available as part of Gaia Sky, a real-time, 3D astronomy visualization software that was developed for the Gaia mission at the University of Heidelberg�s Astronomisches Rechen-Institut.

Schematic diagram showing two stages of star formation in the Milky Way galaxy according to Noguchi. Credit: M. Noguchi/Nature/M. Haywood et al. (2016)/ reproduced with permission � ESO

Model prediction for three different regions of the Milky Way. Credit: M. Noguchi/Nature/M. Haywood et al. (2016)/reproduced with permission � ESO

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The layout of the solar system, including the Oort Cloud, on a logarithmic scale. Credit:

Probing Oort clouds around Milky Way stars with CMB surveys (PDF)

Some comets orbit the Sun on a regular basis, but others come in from deep space, a region known as the Oort Cloud. What causes them to make this journey, and will we ever be able to explore the Oort Cloud? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

What Is The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation?

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is the afterglow of the Big Bang; one of the strongest lines of evidence we have that this event happened. UCLA's Dr. Ned Wright explains.

All-sky data obtained by the ESA�s Planck mission, showing the different wavelenghts. Credit: ESA

The relative sizes of the inner Solar System, Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. (Credit: NASA, William Crochot)

This is a 3D map of 400,000 Hot Massive Stars

Star density map, created from the second data release of ESA�s Gaia mission. Credit: Galaxy Map / K. Jardine

ESA�s Gaia is currently on a five-year mission to map the stars of the Milky Way. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab; background: ESO/S. Brunier.

Map of the Milky Way within 3000 parsec of Earth as created by Kevin Jardine. Credit: Galaxy Map/Kevin Jardine.

Gaia 3D map trailer

This animation uses 3D star and dust density meshes available in the latest version of Gaia Sky to animate a journey through the Milky Way. The animation also includes HII regions and covers a region within 3000 parsecs (about 10 thousand light years) from the Sun. (Twitter: @galaxy_map), Meshes produced by Galaxy Map The star density data is taken from Data Release 2 of the European Space Agency's Gaia astrometry satellite. The dust data is from: Lallement, R.; Capitanio, L.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Danielski, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Vergely, J. L.; Elyajouri, M.; Arenou, F.; Leclerc, N. 3D maps of interstellar dust in the Local Arm: using Gaia, 2MASS and APOGEE-DR14 You can read more about the map in this blog post: This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC,...). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.


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NASA is building up a map of the entire sky seen in X-rays, line by line with its NICER experiment

In June of 2017, NASA’s Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was installed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this instrument is to provide high-precision measurements of neutron stars and other super-dense objects that are on the verge of collapsing into black holes. NICER is also be the first instrument designed to test technology that will use pulsars as navigation beacons.

This image of the whole sky shows 22 months of X-ray data recorded by NASA’s Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) payload aboard the International Space Station during its nighttime slews between targets. Credits: NASA/NICER

The NICER payload, shown here on the outside of the International Space Station. Credit: NASA



PDF articles

Expanding the Timeline for Earth’s Photosynthetic Red Edge Biosignature

Information on Expanding the Timeline for Earth’s Photosynthetic Red Edge Biosignature

Vegetation’s Red Edge: A Possible Spectroscopic Biosignature of Extraterrestrial Plantsx

Information on Vegetation’s Red Edge: A Possible Spectroscopic Biosignature of Extraterrestrial Plants

The 1.28 GHz MeerKAT Galactic Center Mosaic (Radio wavelength

Information on The 1.28 GHz MeerKAT Galactic Center Mosaic (Radio wavelength (PDF)

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