Use my link http://www.audible.com/isaac or text "ISAAC" to 500-500 to get a free book including a copy of Jules Verne's "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" and a 30-day free trial of Audible. Our seas and oceans have always been central to our civilization, but only the thin layer at the top. In many ways the ocean depths remain more of a mystery to us than distant worlds. And yet, they may be of great value to us as future homes for humanity. Visit our Website: Support us on Patreon: SFIA Merchandise available: Social Media: Facebook Group: Reddit: on Twitter and RT our future content. SFIA Discord Server: Listen or Download the audio of this episode from Soundcloud: Episode's Audio-only version: Episode's Narration-only version: Credits: Earth 2.0: Colonizing the Oceans Episode 156, Season 4 E42 Writers: Isaac Arthur Editors: A.T. Long Darius Said Evan Schultheis Jerry Guern Keith Blockus Gregory Leal Mark Warburton Sergio Botero Producer: Isaac Arthur Cover Artist: Jakub Grygier Graphics Team: Fishy Tree Jarred Eagley Jeremy Jozwik Justin Dixon Katie Byrne Ken York of YD Visual Sergio Botero Narrator: Isaac Arthur Music Manager: Luca DeRosa - firstname.lastname@example.org Music: Denny Schneidemesser, "Across the Universe" Markus Junnikkala, "Always Tell Me The Odds" " Stellardrone, "On A Beam Of Light, Outrospace Kai Engel, "Endless Story About Sun and Moon" " The Islands moved while I was asleep Serena Elis, "Between the space" Ross Bugden, "Legend of Styk" Caption author (Portuguese) João Gomes
Use my link or text "ISAAC" to 500-500 to get a free book including a copy of Sir Terry Pratchett's "The Hogfather" Humanity has long had outposts in the barren tundra lands of the arctic, but only in recent times have we visited the poles or the entire continent of Antarctica. In this episode we will explore how me use technology in the future to make cold permafrost into verdant farmland through greenhouses, solar mirrors, geothermal, or other techniques, as well as how we might follow a different path, and adapt our civilization to prosper among perpetual winter and ice. Visit our Website: Support us on Patreon: SFIA Merchandise available: Social Media: Facebook Group: Reddit: on Twitter and RT our future content. SFIA Discord Server: Listen or Download the audio of this episode from Soundcloud: Episode's Audio-only version: Episode's Narration-only version: Credits: Earth 2.0: Colonizing the Arctic Episode 164, Season 4 E50 Writers: Isaac Arthur Editors: A.T. Long Daniel McNamara Darius Said Evan Schultheis Keith Blockus Mark Warburton Matthew Campbell Producer: Isaac Arthur Cover Artist: Jakub Grygier Graphics Team : Andy Popescu Jeremy Jozwik Ken York of YD Visual Kris Holland (Mafic Studios) Sergio Botero SpaceResourcesCGI Narrator: Isaac Arthur Music Manager: Luca DeRosa Music: Paradox Interactive, "Towardsutopia" & "The Titan" Marcus Warner, "The Blue Edge" Taras Harkavyi, "Alpha-and-...." " Stellardrone, "Infinite Void Ayreon, "Aquatic Race" Aerium, "Drowned Holodecks" Markus Junnikkala, "Always Tell Me The Odds"
There's no place like home. Warm, wet and with an atmosphere that's just right, Earth is the only place we know of with life – and lots of it. JPL's Earth science missions monitor our home planet and how it's changing so it can continue to provide a safe haven as we reach deeper into the cosmos.
bounces radio waves and monitors the bounce backs and converts it into audio equivilent
Visit for more. Enveloping our planet and protecting us from the fury of the Sun is the magnetosphere, a key to helping Earth develop into a habitable planet.
Live meteor echoes at LIVEMETEORS.com
A Kyoto University-based team has unraveled the mystery of gamma-ray emission cascades caused by lightning strikes. Credit: Kyoto University/Teruaki Enoto
For some time, physicists have been aware that small bursts of high-energy gamma rays can be produced by lightning storms – what are known as “terrestrial gamma-ray flashes”. They are believed to be the result of static electrical fields accelerating electrons, which are then slowed by the atmosphere. This phenomenon was first discovered by space-based observatories, and rays of up to 100,000 electron volts (100 MeV) have been observed.
Thanks to the success of their campaign, the team built and installed particle detectors across the northwest coast of Honshu. In February of 2017, they installed four more detectors in Kashiwazaki city, which is a few hundred meters away from the neighboring town of Niigata. Immediately after the detectors were installed, a lightning strike took place in Niigata, and the team was able to study it.
It was here that things really got interesting. As the unstable nitrogen broke down, it released positrons that then collided with electrons, causing matter-antimatter annihilations that released more gamma rays. As Enoto explained, this demonstrated, for the first time that antimatter is something that can occur in nature due to common mechanisms.
A NASA visualization shows 20 years of continuous satellite observations of plant life on land and at the ocean's surface from 1997 to 2017. Vegetation on land is represented on a scale from brown (low vegetation) to dark green (lots of vegetation). In the ocean, populations of phytoplankton are indicated on a scale from purple (low) to yellow (high). Credit: NASA
Image: The Moon’s shadow will dramatically affect insolation — the amount of sunlight reaching the ground — during the total solar eclipse. Credit: NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio 160 seconds of totality is a fleeting but, so I’m told, haunting experience. For scientists, though, we’d like a good bit more. Thus it’s welcome news that the European Space Agency is working on Proba-3, a duo of small satellites designed to interact with each other to block the solar disk over and over again. The camera satellite and disk satellite engage in precision flying, creating artificial eclipses of six hours each time the two craft make one 19.6 hour orbit.
A Composite Image of the Earth
NASA has released new, high-definition satellite images of Earth's "night lights" for the first time since 2012. This composite image of the Earth as a "black marble" shows Asia and Australia in 2016.
The first in a series of NASA Earth-observing instruments to be mounted on the exterior of the International Space Station
is scheduled for launch this month. ISS-RapidScat will monitor ocean winds for climate research, weather predictions and hurricane monitoring.
Image Credit: NASA.
The Earth's layers, showing the Inner and Outer Core, the Mantle, and Crust.
Credit: Discover Magzine
This Mollweide projected data visualization shows 20 years of Earth's biosphere starting in September 1997 going through September 2017. Data for this visualization was collected from multiple satellites over the past twenty years. Category News & Politics License Standard YouTube License
A colorful illustration shows the spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission passing through the plasma of space. Credit: NASA
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses with the agency’s Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, mission personnel, Goddard Center Director Chris Scolese and NASA Associate Administrator John Grunsfeld, during visit to the cleanroom at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., on May 12, 2014. Credit: Ken Kremer- Story updated[/caption]
Technicians work on NASA’s 20-foot-tall Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mated quartet of stacked observatories in the cleanroom at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., on May 12, 2014. Credit: Ken Kremer-
NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft has detected magnetic activity occurring in a new and surprising way in the environment of near-Earth space. Earth is surrounded by charged particles known as plasma. Most of these high-energy particles are deflected by the magnetosphere, which is the protective magnetic field that surrounds the planet. As Earth's magnetic-field lines absorb this energy, they stretch and eventually snap, releasing powerful bursts of particles toward Earth, which, in turn, can endanger satellites, spacecraft and astronauts in space. This process, known as magnetic reconnection, is commonly observed in Earth's magnetosphere, generally under calm conditions. However, new data from NASA's MMS has shown for the first time that this process also occurs in the extremely turbulent near-Earth environment known as the magnetosheath, according to a statement from NASA.
Electricity and magnetism have a lot in common. They are connected by the unified theory of electromagnetism, and are in many ways two sides of the same coin. Both can exert forces on charges and magnetic fields. A changing electric field creates a magnetic field and vice versa. Elementary particles can possess Eelectric and magnetic properties. But there is one fundamental difference.
Monopoles would have only a north or south pole. Credit: Daniel Dominguez, CERN
Monopoles would bring symmetry to electromagnetism. Credit: Wikipedia user Maschen
The Swarm constellation probes the magnetic field of Earth’s core. Credit: ESA/ATG Medialab
Visualization of the radiation belts with confined charged particles (blue & yellow) and plasmapause boundary (blue-green surface).
It?s a well-known fact that Earth?s ozone layer protects us from a great deal of the Sun?s ultra-violet radiation.
Were it not for this protective barrier around our planet, chances are our surface would be similar to the rugged and lifeless landscape
we observe on Mars.
Beyond this barrier lies another ? a series of shields formed by a layer of energetic charged particles that are held in place by the
Earth?s magnetic field. Known as the Van Allen radiation belts, this wall prevents the fastest, most energetic electrons from reaching Earth.
Published on Feb 28, 2013 These two nearly identical spacecraft launched in August 2012 and with only six months in operation, they may well be rewriting science textbooks.
The probes study the Van Allen belts, gigantic radiation belts surrounding Earth, which can swell dramatically in response to incoming energy from the sun,
engulfing satellites and spacecraft and creating potential threats to manned space flight.
James Van Allen discovered the radiation belts during the 1958 launch of the first successful U.S. satellite. Subsequent missions have observed parts of the belts, but what causes the dynamic variation in the region has remained something of a mystery. This video is public domain and can be downloaded at:
An artist’s conception of an Iridium-NEXT satellite in low Earth orbit. Image credit: Iridium Communications Inc.
Electrons serve many purposes in physics. They are used by some particle accelerators and they underpin our modern world in the silicon chips that run the world’s computers. They’re also prevalent in space, where they can occasionally be seen floating around in a plasma in the magnetospheres of planets. Now, a team from the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) lead by Drs Hayley Allison and Yuri Shprits have discovered that those electrons present in the magnetosphere can be accelerated up to relativistic speeds, and that could potentially be hazardous to our increasing orbital infrastructure.
Space is our future, but space is also a deadly place, with poisonous radiation and an increased risk of cancer. We’re protected here on Earth thanks to our planet’s magnetosphere, but is there a way to create an artificial magnetosphere and shield astronauts? Universetoday's you tube channel Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - / Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / email@example.com Karla Thompson - @karlaii / Chad Weber - firstname.lastname@example.org Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001
The magnetic field and electric currents in and around Earth generate complex forces that have immeasurable impact on every day life. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab
Exactly how dangerous are solar storms? Scientists think the Carrington Event was one of the most powerful ones to ever hit Earth. They also think that storms that powerful only happen every couple centuries or so. But a new study says we can expect more storms equally as strong, and more often.
Sun with a huge coronal mass ejection. Usually the Sun’s magnetic field lines contain the plasma, but sometimes the lines break and the plasma is ejected. Image credit: NASA
On August 31, 2012 a long filament of solar material that had been hovering in the sun's atmosphere, the corona, erupted out into space at 4:36 p.m. EDT. The coronal mass ejection, or CME, traveled away from the sun at over 900 miles per second. This movie shows the ejection from a variety of viewpoints as captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), and the joint ESA/NASA Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast: Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Facebook: Or find us on Twitter:
These drawings were made by Richard Carrington, the amateur English astronomer which the Carrington Event is named after. His observations helped show the existence of solar flares. The top drawing is the entire solar disc and the bottom is the sunspot that generated the strongest white-light flares. These drawings are reversed from the originals. Image Credit: Royal Astronomical Society.
The ESA is considering a LaGrange Mission which would give us more advance notice of dangerous CMEs. Image Credit: ESA/A. Baker, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
The Earth?s gravitational model (aka the ?Potsdam Potato?) is based on data from the
LAGEOS, GRACE, and GOCE satellites and surface data. Credit: GFZ
People tend to think of gravity here on Earth as a uniform and consistent thing. Stand anywhere on the globe,
at any time of year, and you?ll feel the same downward pull of a single G. But in fact, Earth?s gravitational field is subject
to variations that occur over time. This is due to a combination of factors, such as the uneven distributions of mass in the oceans,
continents, and deep interior, as well as climate-related variables like the water balance of continents, and the melting or growing of glaciers.
The Earth is lumpy. This is a map of Earth’s gravitational field. High areas, colored red, indicate areas where gravity
is slightly stronger than usual, while in blue areas gravity is slightly weaker.
The above map was made in 2005: a more recent and improved version was produced in 2011.
Artist’s impression of the effect Earth’s gravity has on spacetime. Credit: NASA
Artist’s impression of the frame-dragging effect in which space and time are dragged around a massive body. Credit:
Artist's concept of Kepler-69c, a super-Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a star like our sun, located about 2,700 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus. Credit: NASA
The Earth’s Tectonic Plates. Credit:
Map of the Earth showing fault lines (blue) and zones of volcanic activity (red). Credit:
Image of the Sarychev volcano (in Russia’s Kuril Islands) caught during an early stage of eruption on June 12, 2009. Taken by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. Credit: NASA
Look at all the Aerosols Pushed into the Atmosphere, from Fires, Volcanoes and Pollution. Even Sea Salt Thrown into the Air from Hurricanes AUGUST 28, 2018 BY MATT WILLIAMS
Annotated version of the visualization produced with the Goddard Earth the Observing System Forward Processing (GEOS FP) model. Credit: NASA/Joshua Stevens/Adam Voiland
Annoted visual produced from the Goddard Earth the Observing System Forward Processing (GEOS FP) model showing a close-up of Asia. Credit: NASA/Joshua Stevens/Adam Voiland
A snapshot of a model from the new work, showing the late stages of growth and coalescence of a new global fracture network. Fractures are in black / shadow, and colors show stresses (pink color denotes tensile stress, blue color denotes compressive stress). Image Credit: Tang et al, 2020.
A graphic of the Earth’s largest tectonic plates. Image Credit: By Map: USGSDescription:Scott Nash – This file was derived from: Tectonic plates.png, Public Domain,wikipedia
Haleakala, a giant shield volcano, forms the eastern bulwark of the island of Maui. In Earth’s deep past, periods of increased volcanism would’ve helped the Earth cool, like a radiation releasing steam. Credit: National Geographic/Cathy Roberts
This figure from the study shows the development of a global system of fracturing. The top panel of six illustrated globes shows the global distribution of stress magnitudes over time, with negative values showing tensile stress, and positive values showing compressive stress. The bottom panel of six globes shows the associated displacement. For more detail, visit the study. Image Credit: Tang et al, 2020.
This figure from the study shows fracture development over time across shells with various thicknesses. The team modeled shells with thicknesses ranging from only 20 km up to 200 km. Image Credit: Tang et al, 2020.
Geologists think they’ve found the oldest Earth rock ever seen. And they found it in one of the last places you’d ever suspect, on the Moon. When the Apollo 14 astronauts returned their lunar samples back to Earth, they were carrying one rock that had formed on Earth 4 to 4.1 billion years ago, which was carved out of our planet during the time of intense bombardment and delivered to the Moon. Audio Podcast version: ITunes: RSS: Video Podcast version: ITunes: RSS: Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: Follow us on Tumblr: More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / email@example.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber -
But, there’s a little chaos and unpredictability throughout nature, and asteroids are no exception. There are also some tiny uncertainties in asteroids’ positions. There’s no room for carelessness when you only have one planetary home.
This illustration explains the Yarkovsky effect. The Yarkovsky effect can alter the orbit of smaller NEOs. Image Credit: By Graevemoore at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0,
This chart from CNEOS shows the cumulative number of known Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) versus time. It shows totals for NEAs of all sizes, those NEAs larger than ~140m in diameter and those larger than ~1km in diameter. The dramatic rise in detections in the last two decades is likely to continue as the NEO Surveyor and the Vera C. Rubin facilities start operating. Image Credit: CNEOS
This animation shows an example of how the uncertainties in a near-Earth asteroid’s orbit can evolve with time. After such an asteroid’s close encounter with Earth, the uncertainty region becomes larger, making the possibility of future impacts more challenging to assess. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech