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Mission to Titan

Artist’s impression of the view from the surface of Titan, looking over one of its methane seas. Credit: NASA

Derived diagram of Titan

Image: This artist’s concept shows a possible model of Titan’s internal structure that incorporates data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. In this model, Titan is fully differentiated, which means the denser core of the moon has separated from its outer parts. This model proposes a core consisting entirely of water-bearing rocks and a subsurface ocean of liquid water. The mantle, in this image, is made of icy layers, one that is a layer of high-pressure ice closer to the core and an outer ice shell on top of the sub-surface ocean. A model of Cassini is shown making a targeted flyby over Titan’s cloudtops, with Saturn and Enceladus appearing at upper right. The model, developed by Dominic Fortes of University College London, England, incorporates data from Cassini’s radio science experiment. Credit: A. D. Fortes/UCL/STFC.

TITAN INFOGRAPHIC


LIVING ON TITAN - INFOGRAPHIC


Storms on Titan!!!


Spacecraft Stormchasing: Titan Clouds Swirl As Saturn Moon Approaches Northern Summer

Clouds swirl on the Saturn moon Titan, over the methane Ligeia Mare, in this picture sequence
taken by the Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute
Swoosh! At long last, and later than models predicted, clouds are starting to appear
on Titan�s nothern hemisphere. The region is just starting to enter a seven-year-long summer,
and scientists say this could be an indication of coming summer storms there.
by Elizabeth Howell on August 12, 2014

Vortex at Titan's South Pole!

Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion |
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Cassini Probe Spots Methane Ice Crystals In Titan�s Atmosphere!

The cloud in the stratosphere over Titan�s north pole (left), Earth�s polar stratospheric clouds (right).
Image Credit: NASA/JPL/UofAriz./LPGNantes; R. NASA/GSFC/M. Schoeberl
During it�s 2006 flyby of Titan, the Cassini Space Probe captured some of the most detailed images of Saturn�s largest moon.
Amongst them was one showing the lofty cloud formations over Titan�s north pole (shown above).
Interestingly enough, these cloud formations bear a strong resemblance to those that are seen in Earth�s own polar stratosphere.

TITAN: INFRARED Specular Spectacular!

This near-infrared, color mosaic from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows the sun glinting off of Titan's north polar seas.
While Cassini has captured, separately, views of the polar seas (see PIA17470) and the sun glinting off of them (see PIA12481 and PIA18433)
in the past, this is the first time both have been seen together in the same view.

Image: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/University of Idaho This composite infra red image of Saturn’s moon Titan was taken on 13 November by NASA’s Cassini probe.
The spacecraft’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument made these observations,
in which blue represents wavelengths centered at 1.3 microns, green represents 2.0 microns, and red represents 5.0 microns.
A view at visible wavelengths (centered around 0.5 microns) would show only Titan’s hazy atmosphere. The near-infrared wavelengths
in this image allow Cassini’s vision to penetrate the haze and reveal the moon’s surface.

TITAN: The Smog covered Moon

Titan�s surface is almost completely hidden from view by its thick orange �smog�
(NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI. Composite by J. Major)
Titan is Saturn�s largest moon and is constantly surprising scientists as the Cassini
spacecraft probes under its thick atmosphere. Take its dunes, for example, which are huge and pointed the wrong way.
Why are they pointing opposite to the prevailing east-west winds? It happens during
two rare wind reversals during a single Saturn year (30 Earth years), investigators suggest.

THERE’S SAND ON TITAN, WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?

This true-color image of Titan, taken by the Cassini spacecraft, shows the moon's thick, hazy atmosphere. Credit: NASA

Giant Dunes on Saturn's Moon Titan Sculpted by Rogue Winds

Sand dune patterns on the surface of Titan, seen in a radar image taken by the Cassini spacecraft.
Two groups of researchers are investigating the forces responsible for forming the dunes.
Credit: Cornell/Laboratoire AIM Paris-Diderot
Another group of researchers investigated the formation of Titan's dunes using data from the Cassini spacecraft.
Their work suggests that the dunes may have taken as long as 3,000 Saturn years to form (the equivalent of 90,000 Earth years).
According to a statement from Texas A&M, the formation of the dunes may be influenced by changes in Saturn's orbit.

Dunes on Titan seen in Cassini’s radar (top) that are similar to Namibian sand dunes on Earth. The features that appear to be clouds in the top picture are actually topographic features. Credit: NASA

Radar image of sand dunes on Titan. Credit: NASA/JPL–Caltech/ASI/ESA and USGS/ESA

Cassini Sees Rigid, Weathered Ice Shell on Titan

Cassini Sees Rigid, Weathered Ice Shell on TITAN. New gravity & topography data from Cassini
reveal unexpected features of the Titan�s outer ice shell. This image is a composite of several images
taken during two separate Titan flybys on 10/9 & 10/25/2004. Credit: NASA /JPL /U of AZ

Deserts and dunes—Earth as an analogue for Titan November 6, 2015

Sand dunes and mega-yardangs on Titan. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/ESA

I ( Emily Lakdawalla) made a map so you can see what all these geographic features are named:

NASA / JPL / SSI / Emily Lakdawalla Titan geography around Fensal-Aztlan

Landing On Titan With Huygens in Beautiful New Video

The view of Titan from the descending Huygens spacecraft on January 14, 2005. Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

This composite was produced from images returned on 14 January 2005, by ESA’s Huygens probe during its successful descent to land on Titan. It shows the boundary between the lighter-coloured uplifted terrain, marked with what appear to be drainage channels, and darker lower areas. These images were taken from an altitude of about 8 kilometres with a resolution of about 20 metres per pixel. Credits: ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

The first-ever images of the surface of a new moon or planet are always exciting. This image was taken by the Huygens probe at its landing site on Titan. Image Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Titan's last Image From Cassini- Titan Farewell
See dramatic clouds streak across Saturn's moon Titan

See dramatic clouds streak across Saturn's moon Titan More The Cassinis spacecraft's farewell tour of Saturn may be focused on the strangely empty space between the planet and its rings, but it's still taking time to do some local sightseeing. Cassini snapped this image of Saturn's largest moon Titan on May 7 from a distance of 303,000 miles (488,000 kilometers) away. The bright streaks are methane clouds, while the darker splotches seen toward the top are the moon's fascinating hydrocarbon lakes. NASA released two versions of the image on Tuesday with different levels of enhancement. One makes the bands and seas really pop out, while the other offers a softer, more ethereal view of the same scene. The Cassini mission, which launched in 1997, is scheduled

NASA's Cassini spacecraft looks toward the night side of Saturn's largest moon and sees sunlight scattering through the periphery of Titan's atmosphere and forming a ring of color. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

EXPLORING TITAN WITH BALLOONS AND LANDERS

Artist depiction of Huygens landing on Titan. Credit: ESA

The ESA’s TALISE (Titan Lake In-situ Sampling Propelled Explorer) on the left, and NASA’s Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) on the right. Credit:

Updated maps of Titan, based on the Cassini imaging science subsystem. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

Artist depiction of the ESA’s Huygens lander setting down on Titan, which took place on January 14th. Credit: ESA

Infrared images of Saturn's moon Titan, captured by Cassini's the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Stéphane Le Mouélic, University of Nantes, Virginia Pasek, University of Arizona

Comparison between how Titan appears in visible light (center), and in infrared. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Stéphane Le Mouélic, University of Nantes, Virginia Pasek, University of Arizona

The three mosaics shown here were composed with data from Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) taken during the three flybys of Titan. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA's Saturn mission page

Titan First-Ever Detected Dust Storms Proves
the Moon to be More Earth-like than Ever

Artist’s concept of a dust storm on Titan. Researchers believe that huge amounts of dust can be raised on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, by strong wind gusts that arise in powerful methane storms. Such methane storms, previously observed in images from the international Cassini spacecraft, can form above dune fields that cover the equatorial regions of this moon especially around the equinox, the time of the year when the Sun crosses the equator. Credit: NASA/ESA/IPGP/Labex UnivEarthS/University Paris Diderot.

Image: This compilation of images from nine Cassini flybys of Titan in 2009 and 2010 captures three instances when clear bright spots suddenly appeared in images taken by the spacecraft’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer. The brightenings were visible only for a short period of time — between 11 hours to five Earth weeks — and cannot be seen in previous or subsequent images. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University Paris Diderot/IPGP. In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience, the researchers likewise discount the possibility that Cassini had detected surface features, areas of frozen methane or lava flows of ice. The problem here is that the bright features in the infrared were visible for relatively short periods — 11 hours to 5 weeks — while surface spots should have remained visible for longer. Nor do they bear the chemical signature expected from such formations at the surface.

This animation — based on images captured by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on NASA’s Cassini mission during several Titan flybys in 2009 and 2010 — shows clear bright spots appearing close to the equator around the equinox that have been interpreted as evidence of dust storms. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University Paris Diderot/IPGP. Rodriguez and team used computer modeling to show that the brightened features were atmospheric but extremely low, forming what is in all likelihood a thin layer of solid organic particles. Such particles form because of the interaction between methane and sunlight. Because the bright features occurred over known dune fields at Titan’s equator, Rodriguez believes that they are clouds of dust kicked up by wind hitting the dunes.


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NASA Detects More Chemicals on Titan that are Essential to Life

A recent study by NASA scientists has shown that a building block that is crucial for life in hostile environments exists in abundance on Titan. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Acrylonitrile has been identified as a possible basis for cell membranes in liquid methane on Titan. Credit: Ben Mills/Paul Patton.

Image: Archival ALMA data have confirmed that molecules of vinyl cyanide reside in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Titan is shown in an optical (atmosphere) infrared (surface) composite from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. In a liquid methane environment, vinyl cyanide may form membranes. Credit: B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF); NASA. An interesting thought, because the three signals Palmer and team found in millimeter wavelength spectra from ALMA observations in 2014 confirm what Cassini had already hinted at, which in turn reinforce laboratory simulations of Titan’s atmosphere. A surface rife with pools of hydrocarbons — and Titan is a place of methane rains, rivers and seas — could allow molecules of vinyl cyanide to link together, forming membranes that resemble the lipid-based cell membranes found on Earth. Titan’s complex organic molecules along with its nitrogen atmosphere and the presence of carbon-based molecules are provocative ingredients.

This true-color image of Titan, taken by the Cassini spacecraft, shows the moon’s thick, hazy atmosphere. Image: By NASA – Public Domain,

A Jarful of Titan Could Teach Us A Lot About Life There, and Here On Earth

Titan is a distant, exotic, and dangerous world. It’s frigid temperatures and hydrocarbon chemistry is like nothing else in the Solar System. Now that NASA is heading there, some researchers are getting a jump on the mission by recreating Titan’s chemistry in jars.

A team of scientists at Cornell University created a hypothetical cell membrane that could exist on Titan. Image Credit: Credit:?James?Stevenson That’s largely why the Dragonfly mission was born.

How Habitable is Titan? NASA is Sending the Titan Dragonfly Helicopter to Find Out

There are few places in the Solar System which are as fascinating as Saturn’s moon Titan. It’s a world with a thicker atmosphere than Earth. Where it’s so cold that it rains ammonia, forming lakes, rivers and seas. Where water ice forms mountains.

How Habitable Is Titan? NASA Is Sending The Titan Dragonfly Helicopter To Find Out

There are few places in the Solar System which are as fascinating as Saturn’s moon Titan. It’s a world with a thicker atmosphere than Earth. Where it’s so cold that it rains ammonia, forming lakes, rivers and seas. Where water ice forms mountains. Like Europa and Encleadus, Titan could have an interior ocean of liquid water too, a place where there might be life. Titan’s got layers, and fortunately, there’s an awesome new mission in the works to explore it: the Titan Dragonfly mission. Links to episodes I mention: - Drilling under the ice on Europa - Missions to Titan - Everyday Astronaut talks about Titan Dragonfly Audio Podcast version: ITunes: RSS: What Fraser's Watching Playlist: Weekly email newsletter: Support us at: More stories at: Twitch: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday : Like us on Facebook - Instagram Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com - @karlaii / Karla Thompson Chad Weber - References: Nasa's Solar system page Spacecraft CASSINI ORBITER HUYGEN'S PROBE NAVIGATION Nasa's Landsat page NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Titan NASA's Dragonfly Will Fly Around Titan Looking for Origins, Signs of Life

This view of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is among the last images the Cassini spacecraft sent to Earth before it plunged into the giant planet’s atmosphere. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

The three mosaics shown here were composed with data from Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer taken during the last three Titan flybys, on Oct. 28, 2005 (left image), Dec. 26, 2005 (middle image), and Jan. 15, 2006 (right image). Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Ligeia Mare, shown in here in data obtained by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, is the second largest known body of liquid on Saturn’s moon Titan. It is filled with liquid hydrocarbons, such as ethane and methane, and is one of the many seas and lakes that bejewel Titan’s north polar region. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/Cornell

Habitability of Hydrocarbon Worlds: Titan and Beyond. How life could move from the surface of Titan into its interior and vice versa. Credit: NASA/JPL/NIA

Artist’s illustration of the interior of Titan, including its liquid water layer. Credit: NASA/JPL

Saturn’s rings lie in the distance as the Cassini spacecraft looks toward Titan and its dark region called Shangri-La, east of the landing site of the Huygens Probe. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute


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Aerial Investigation of Titan

Incredible Technology: Inflatable Aircraft Could Cruise Venus Skies By Mike Wall, Senior Writer | March 3, 2014 07:01am ET - : See more

Artist's concept of an inflatable airship cruising through the skies of Saturn's huge moon Titan. Aerospace firms Northrop Grumman and L'Garde have been developing a Venus-specific version of this vehicle called VAMP (short for Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform). Credit: Northrop-Grumman - : See more

Artist’s concept of a Mongolfiere balloon and a deployable lander at Titan. Credit: NASA

Concept for a Titan Winged Aerobot, a hybrid balloon glider that does not require significant power either to stay aloft or to achieve lateral motion. Credit: Global Aerospace Corp/Northrup Grumman

Artist’s concept of the Titan Aerial Daughtercraft (TAD) flying above one of Titan’s methane lake. Credit: NASA

Artist’s concept of the Titan Aerial Daughter quadcopter and its “Mothercraft” balloon. Credit: NASA/STMD

EXPLORING TITAN WITH AERIAL PLATFORMS

The Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR) concept for an aerial explorer for Titan. Credit: Mike Malaska

A proposed eight-bladed drone (aka. "dragonfly") could be ideally suited for exploring Saturn's moon Titan in the coming decades. Credit: APL/Michael Carroll

Artist’s concept of the dragonfly being deployed to Titan and commencing its exploration mission. Credit: APL/Michael Carroll

YES PLEASE! NASA IS CONSIDERING A HELICOPTER MISSION TO TITAN

In this illustration, the Dragonfly helicopter drone is descending to the surface of Titan. Image: NASA

NASA PICKS THE DRAGONFLY MISSION

Image: This illustration shows NASA’s Dragonfly rotorcraft-lander approaching a site on Saturn’s exotic moon, Titan. Taking advantage of Titan’s dense atmosphere and low gravity, Dragonfly will explore dozens of locations across the icy world, sampling and measuring the compositions of Titan’s organic surface materials to characterize the habitability of Titan’s environment and investigate the progression of prebiotic chemistry. Credit: NASA/JHU APL. Applied Physics Lab's (APL’s) Elizabeth ‘Zibi’ Tuttle is chief investigator for Dragonfly:

Thank You Applied Physics Lab!!!




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Shape-shifting Robots Like These Could Be Just What We Need to Explore Titan

When it comes to space exploration, it’s robots that do most of the work. That trend will continue as we send missions onto the surfaces of worlds further and further into the Solar System. But for robots to be effective in the challenging environments we need to explore—like Saturn’s moon Titan—we need more capable robots.

In this artist’s illustration of how Shapeshifter might work on Titan, the robot splits into individual robots that can investigate a waterfall from the air. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Marilynn Flynn

An illustration of the small robots that form Shapeshifter. Dubbed “cobots,” they each have a propeller for flying and can combine to form a sphere, rolling on the ground to save energy. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

With thanks to The NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program

NASA’s Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is also behind the Titan Submarine (left) and the Triton Hopper (right). Image Credits: Left:NASA. Right: NASA/S. Olesen

Shapeshifter | A Morphing Robot to Explore All Terrains

The revolutionary concept called Shapeshifter is part drone, part boat, part all-terrain vehicle, and part submarine. NASA 360 takes a look at the NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) known as Shapeshifter. Researched by a team of engineers at NASA JPL the Shapeshifter concept is a flying amphibious robot that could one day be used to explore the treacherous terrains of distant worlds. To watch the in-depth presentation about this topic please visit the : 2018 NIAC Symposium Livestream site

NASA’s Dragonfly mission to Titan will take advantage of the moon’s thick atmosphere to fly to different locations. In this illustration, the Dragonfly helicopter drone is descending to the surface of Titan. Image: NASA

From Universetoday The Dragonfly


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About Those Deep Lakes

Lakes on Titan!!!

Methane-Filled Lakes on Titan are “Surprisingly Deep”!


This colorized mosaic from NASA�s Cassini mission shows the most complete view yet of Titan�s northern land of lakes and seas.
Saturn�s moon Titan is the only world in our solar system other than Earth that has stable liquid on its surface.
The liquid in Titan�s lakes and seas is mostly methane and ethane.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/USGS

Artist concept of Methane-Ethane lakes on Titan (Credit: Copyright 2008 Karl Kofoed).

Artist’s conception of a possible structure for underground liquid reservoirs on Saturn moon’s Titan. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab

About Those Deep Lakes

A Cassini radar image of Ontario Lacus (Lake Ontario) the first confirmed hydrocarbon on Titan. Ontario Lacus is at the moon’s south polar region. Image Credit: – By NASA/JPL-Caltech Public Domain,

Images from the Cassini mission show river networks draining into lakes in Titans north polar region. Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS.

Titan’s three largest lakes and their surrounding areas as seen by the Cassini RADAR instrument. The researchers used the instrument to study waves on the lake surfaces. Credit: Cyril Grima/ The University of Texas at Austin

The left image shows a mosaic of images of Titan taken by the Cassini spacecraft in near infrared light. Titan’s polar seas are visible as sunlight glints off of them. The right image is a radar image of Kraken Mare. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Science Flooded Canyons Discovered on Saturn's Mysterious Moon Titan

NASA's Cassini spacecraft pinged the surface of Titan with microwaves, finding that some channels are deep, steep-sided canyons
filled with liquid hydrocarbons. One such feature is Vid Flumina, the branching network of narrow lines in the upper-left quadr NASA
just announced that it has discovered flooded canyons on Saturn's moon Titan, a world famous for vast seas and lakes as well as
torrential downpours of methane and other hydrocarbons. The findings, recently published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters,
suggest complex and diverse geologic activity on the distant moon similar to what we have on Earth, despite the substantial differences
between the two worlds.

Cassini image of the northern polar area of Titan and Vid Flumina drainage basin, showing Ligeia Mare (left)
and the Vid Flumina drainage basin (right). Credit: R.L. Kirk/NASA/JPL

Lakes on Titan Might Have Exotic Crystals Encrusted Around Their Shores

Titan is a mysterious, strange place for human eyes. It’s a frigid world, with seas of liquid hydrocarbons, and a structure made up of layers of water, different kinds of ice, and a core of hydrous silicates. It may even have cryovolcanoes. Adding to the odd nature of Saturn’s largest moon is the presence of exotic crystals on the shores of its hydrocarbon lakes.

This colorized mosaic from NASA’s Cassini mission shows the most complete view yet of Titan’s northern land of lakes and seas. Saturn’s moon Titan is the only world in our solar system other than Earth that has stable liquid on its surface. The liquid in Titan’s lakes and seas is mostly methane and ethane. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/USGS

The geometry of benzene. Image Credit: By Haltopub – Own work, d’après Benzen.svg, Public Domain,

This view of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is among the last images the Cassini spacecraft sent to Earth before it plunged into the giant planet’s atmosphere. The thick, hazy atmosphere makes studying the moon extremely difficult . Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

ARTICLE

132-094 - The Acetylene-Butane Co-Crystal:
A Potentially Abundant Molecular Mineral on Titan (PDF)


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Cassini Saw Rain Falling at Titan’s North Pole

This image, called T120, was captured by Cassini’s VIMS in June 2016. The BEF (Bright Ephemeral Feature) is highlighted in the yellow box. Image Credit: NASA/ESA/ASI/Cassini.

This image, called T121, was captured one year after T120 by the same Cassini instrument, the VIMS. In this image, the BEF has disappeared. Image Credit: NASA/ESA/ASI/Cassini.

This is a zoomed-in and annotated image of Titan’s north pole. The black dot is the north pole. Image Credit: NASA/ESA/ASI/Cassini/Dhingra et. al. 2019.

This Cassini RADAR image of Titan’ south pole covers a swath 760 km long by 150 km wide. It shows only two lakes. After scientists spotted rainfall and clouds at the south pole, they thought that the north pole, with dozens of lakes, must have even more clouds and rainfall. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

There are Ring-Like Formations Around the Lakes on Titan

Cassini RADAR image of Titan’s north pole. The north pole has an abundance of lakes of liquid hydrocarbons. Kraken Mare is at lower left. Ligeia Mare is below the pole, and to the left of the pole is Punga Mare. By NASA / JPL-Caltech / Agenzia Spaziale Italiana / USGS

These images provide a view of rampart and rim features near a lake on Saturn’s moon Titan. Right: Cassini RADAR image of one of Titan’s lake, Viedma Lacus, obtained using the instrument’s Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imager.Yellow arrows indicate portions of the raised rim near the lake, while cyan arrows indicate portions of the perimeter of the rampart feature that encloses nearly the entire lake. Top left: A zoomed-in view of the raised rim. Bottom left: Illustration of a lake with rampart and rim features. Rims involve higher slopes and are confined to within a few km of the lake, while ramparts enclose the entire lake and form broader mounds, up to tens of km. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI; ESA/A. Solomonidou et al. (2019)

Filled and empty lakes on Titan. Spectral data showed that the floors of empty lakes and the ramparts surround some lakes are made from or are coated with the same material. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI; ESA/A. Solomonidou et al. (2019)

An image of Titan’s labyrinth terrain compared to an area of canyons on Earth. The Earth photo is from the island of Java in Indonesia, in an area called Gunung Kidul. Image Credit: NASA/Cassini

An artist’s imagination of hydrocarbon pools, icy and rocky terrain on the surface of Saturn’s largest moon Titan. We now know that many of Titan’s lakes are surrounded by rampart features. Image credit: Steven Hobbs (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia).

Images as presented in the study. (A) was taken in 2014 and shows no BEF. (B) was taken in June 2016 and shows the appearance of the BEF. (C) was taken one month later, in July 2016 and shows the disappearance of the BEF. (D) is a labelled image of the region. (E) and (F) are Earthly analogues of the types of reflection Cassini spotted on Titan. Image Credit: NASA/ESA/ASI/Dhingra et. al. 2019.


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ARTICLES

Dazzling Views Show Saturn Moon Titan's Surface Like Never Before




NASA is Going Back to Saturn’s Moon Titan, this Time With a Nuclear Battery-Powered Quadcopter


SMU’s ‘Titans in a Jar’ could answer key questions ahead of NASA’s space exploration
NASA headed to Saturn’s ‘Titan’ moon in 2026 to look for signs of past or present life


Even Though it’s an Alien World, Titan’s Canyons Would Look Very Familiar



PDFs

Observational evidence for summer rainfall at Titan’snorth pole (PDF)

VIDEOS

Saturn’s Moon Titan

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the second-largest natural satellite in the Solar System. It is the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. Titan is the sixth gravitationally rounded moon from Saturn. Frequently described as a planet-like moon, Titan is 50% larger than Earth's moon and 80% more massive. It is the second-largest moon in the Solar System after Jupiter's moon Ganymede, and is larger than the planet Mercury, but only 40% as massive. Discovered in 1655 by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens, Titan was the first known moon of Saturn, and the sixth known planetary satellite (after Earth's moon and the four Galilean moons of Jupiter). Titan orbits Saturn at 20 Saturn radii. From Titan's surface, Saturn subtends an arc of 5.09 degrees and would appear 11.4 times larger in the sky than the Moon from Earth. The first probe to visit the Saturnian system was Pioneer 11 in 1979, which revealed that Titan was probably too cold to support life. It took images of Titan, including Titan and Saturn together in mid to late 1979. The quality was soon surpassed by the two Voyagers. Titan was examined by both Voyager 1 and 2 in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Voyager 1's trajectory was designed to provide an optimized Titan flyby, during which the spacecraft was able to determine the density, composition, and temperature of the atmosphere, and obtain a precise measurement of Titan's mass. Atmospheric haze prevented direct imaging of the surface, though in 2004 intensive digital processing of images taken through Voyager 1's orange filter did reveal hints of the light and dark features now known as Xanadu and Shangri-la, which had been observed in the infrared by the Hubble Space Telescope. Voyager 2, which would have been diverted to perform the Titan flyby if Voyager 1 had been unable to, did not pass near Titan and continued on to Uranus and Neptune. The Cassini–Huygens spacecraft reached Saturn on July 1, 2004, and began the process of mapping Titan's surface by radar. A joint project of the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA, Cassini–Huygens proved a very successful mission. The Cassini probe flew by Titan on October 26, 2004, and took the highest-resolution images ever of Titan's surface, at only 1,200 kilometers, discerning patches of light and dark that would be invisible to the human eye. On July 22, 2006, Cassini made its first targeted, close fly-by at 950 kilometers from Titan; the closest flyby was at 880 kilometers on June 21, 2010. Liquid has been found in abundance on the surface in the north polar region, in the form of many lakes and seas discovered by Cassini.

Planning Cassini’s Grand Finale

Original air date: March 22 at 7 p.m. PT (10 p.m. ET, 0200 UTC) Mission planning is a core strength of JPL engineering, along with deep space communications and navigation. This talk looks back at the various scenarios and contingency plans the Cassini team made as they steered the spacecraft into unexplored space during its 2017 Grand Finale at Saturn. Sturm discussed how the possible scenarios -- some of which could have been mission-ending -- compared to the mission as it was actually flown, along with some science highlights from the finale.

Titan Touchdown

Published on Jan 11, 2017 On Jan. 14, 2005, ESA's Huygens probe made its descent to the surface of Saturn's hazy moon, Titan. Carried to Saturn by NASA's Cassini spacecraft, Huygens made the most distant landing ever on another world, and the only landing on a body in the outer solar system. This video uses actual images taken by the probe during its two-and-a-half hour fall under its parachutes. Huygens was a signature achievement of the international Cassini-Huygens mission, which will conclude on Sept. 15, 2017, when Cassini plunges into Saturn's atmosphere. For more info, visit Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

A Titan Discovery

Published on Jul 28, 2017 NASA Goddard scientists have made an exciting discovery on Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The team has definitively detected the molecule acrylonitrile in Titan's atmosphere - a finding that has astrobiological relevance. Read more: Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/David Ladd Music Credits: Killer Tracks: "A Look Ahead" - Matthew St Laurent This video is public domain and along with other supporting visualizations can be downloaded from the Scientific Visualization Studio If you liked this video, subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: Or subscribe :to NASA’s Goddard Shorts HD Podcast Follow NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center · Facebook: · Twitter Flickr · Instagram · Google+ Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


Titan Submarine: Exploring the Depths of Kraken Mare

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Published on Feb 3, 2015 What would a submarine to explore the liquid methane seas of Saturn's Moon Titan look like? This video shows one submarine concept that would explore both the shoreline and the depths of this strange world that has methane rain, rivers and seas! The design was developed for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program, by NASA Glenn's COMPASS Team, and technologists and scientists from the Applied Physics Lab and submarine designers from the Applied Research Lab. [music only - no narration] Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Europa is fine and all, but where we really need to go is Saturn's moon Titan. Let's look at some cool ideas for probes to fully explore this world. Support us at Patreon More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday More stories at: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / Fraser cain Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - As you probably know, NASA recently announced plans to send a mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa. If all goes well, the Europa Clipper will blast off for the world in the 2020s, and orbit the icy moon to discover all its secrets.

Dragonfly: A Proposal to Explore Titan, Saturn's Largest Moon, via Quadcopter

A team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland is proposing an instrumented, radioisotope-powered dual-quadcopter to explore Titan, one of a number of "ocean worlds" in our solar system that hold the ingredients for life. Dragonfly, a New Frontiers-class mission concept APL is proposing to NASA, would explore Titan's surface. The moon is known to be covered with rich organic material, which is undergoing chemical processes that might be similar to those on early Earth, before life developed. APL's Peter Bedini, program manager for Dragonfly, details the proposal's engineering and science. To learn more, visit NASA's Dragon fly web site Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License SHOW LESS

On the Shores of Titan's Farthest Sea - Michael Carroll (SETI TALKS)

Published on Mar 25, 2016 In this talk, Author/artist Michael Carroll will explore the bizarre methane-filled seas and soaring dunes of Saturn's largest moon,
Titan. Recent advances in our understanding of this planet-sized moon provide enough information for authors to paint a realistic picture
of this truly alien world. Following his presentation, he will be signing his new science fiction adventure/mystery book,
"On the Shores of Titan's Farthest Sea". "Carroll's descriptions of oily seas and methane monsoons put you in that alien world, front and center…I can imagine future astronauts doing exactly
the kinds of things Mike describes. I wish I could be one of them." Alan Bean, Apollo 12 astronaut. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

NASA Selects Quadcopter Dragonfly to Go to TITAN!

Space Fan News is Sponsored by OPT Telescopes and Patreon Patrons: In this episode, we are going to Titan! Yesterday NASA announced a new mission, called Dragonfly, a mission designed to go to Saturn’s moon Titan. And we’re not talking about you’re run-of-the-mill rover, NASA plans to send a quadcopter to fly around to dozens of locations over hundreds of kilometers on the surface this amazing moon. Dragon fly main page NASA PRESS RELEASE TITAN ROTO CRAFT Consider supporting Space Fan News: to ensure you get current space & astronomy news each week! Space Fan News Theme by Stephen Dubois available for download here: Follow DeepAstronomy on Twitter: @DeepAstronomy Like DeepAstronomy on Facebook: Like Space Fan News on Facebook:

Alien life on a flammable yet frozen world? | Titan Revealed

Join me as we discover everything we've learned about Saturn's moon Titan - one of the most interesting worlds in our Solar System! Patreon - My Website - Facebook - Twitter - Special thanks to these patrons who support the channel through their very generous donations: -Dimitris Gatsoulis -Mont Blanc -Reno Miles

What Huygens Saw On Titan - New Image Processing

For the probe landing’s 10th anniversary, a new sequence has been rendered from Huygens’ Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) data. The craft landed on Saturn’s largest moon on 14 Jan 2005. -- Landing Animation: Credit: Erich Karkoschka, DISR team, University of Arizona

Titan Landing - REAL FOOTAGE - Cassini–Huygens

Hello and welcome to What Da Math! In this video, we will talk about Cassini–Huygens mission to Saturn and the descent video from NASA. Support this channel on Patreon to help me make this a full time job: Space Engine is available for free here: Enjoy and please subscribe. Twitter: Facebook: Twitch: Bitcoins to spare? Donate them here to help this channel grow! 1GFiTKxWyEjAjZv4vsNtWTUmL53HgXBuvu The hardware used to record these videos: CPU: Video Card: Motherboard: RAM: PSU: Case: Microphone: Mixer: Recording and Editing:<

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